Extension of SQA accreditation/qualification to reflect diversity and changing trends in language learning and demographics
City of Edinburgh (CEC) is committed to the learning and teaching of Modern Languages (ML) and welcomes developments within Curriculum for Excellence (CfE), the 1+2 recommendations, the Scottish Government's China plan, the national and local Gaelic plan and other national strategies which promote and deliver Languages learning.
Key commitments in Education, Children and Families currently include:
- The creation in 2012 of a permanent Modern Languages Education Support Officer post for schools
- The maintenance of permanent part-time Gaelic Development Officer post
- The creation of a Gaelic medium primary school, opening August 2013
- The maintenance of the Foreign Language Assistant (FLA) programme (recommendation 30)
- The redevelopment and growth of the Modern Languages in the Primary (MLPS) teacher training programme across a range of languages, including Mandarin. Open to practitioners from other local authorities. Good and increasing uptake.
- Gaelic Language in the Primary School (GLPS) training programmes
- Extensive deployment of native speaking volunteers in schools (recommendation 31)
- Extensive partnership working with cultural organisations, Scotland’s National Centre for Languages (SCILT), the Confucius Institute for Scotland’s Schools (CISS) the Further Education (FE) and Higher Education (HE) sectors and business to enhance and extend provision (recommendation 19)
- The appointment of a permanent CEC teacher of Mandarin and the successful establishment of the CEC Confucius Classroom Hub at Leith Academy
- Further development of Modern Languages provision through CEC’s International Unit’s co-ordination of native speaker volunteers and as part of the Edinburgh International City of Learning Let’s Learn a Languages initiative.
- The delivery of a wide range of Community Languages
- Extensive support to cluster school groups for the implementation of the Broad, General Education (BGE) in Languages, including planning for learning, assessment, moderation and reporting.
- By the end of session 2013-14, all schools will be reporting at key stages within CfE levels on learners' progress through the BGE in Modern Languages
- From the earliest opportunity, extensive support for the implementation of the new National Qualifications (NQs) in Languages, including the writing of exemplar course materials in 5 languages (NB the part played by FLAs as native speakers here is invaluable), exemplar assessments, a wide range of training sessions, including for all ML practitioners and Curriculum Leaders.
- An extensive programme of training and support on a wider range of aspects of Languages learning
- A biennial Modern Languages Conference for local practitioners. Also open to practitioners nationally.
Modern Languages in City of Edinburgh Schools 2012-13
The current model of an entitlement to ML from P6 at the latest is embedded across the Authority. Almost all schools are now in line with national and local policy of learner entitlement to ML until the end of S3 as part of the Broad General Education. All remaining secondary schools are moving to this model from 2013/2014 onwards. All secondary schools offer a choice of at least two languages in the Senior Phase with a number now offering 3, 4 or 5 different languages in a range of flexible options. From session 2013/14, further opportunities to study Modern Languages in the senior phase at Advanced Higher level will be delivered through virtual learning delivered through consortia approaches and including delivery by the Edinburgh College.
2012 data shows we deliver French in all 87 primary schools, German in 24 primary schools, Spanish in 12 primary schools, Italian in 5 primary schools and Mandarin in 7 primary schools.
In addition to this, we also deliver a programme of Gaelic from P5 in 8 primary schools with a Gaelic medium primary school due to open in August 2013. The teaching of Gaelic is supported by the Gaelic Specific Grant and the GLPS (Gaelic Language in the Primary School) training programme.
The most recent data shows at least 19 primary schools are known to start ML from P3 or earlier. The actual figure is expected to be significantly higher when the planned CEC 1+2 audit has been completed. This will take place shortly and will give a more accurate picture of exactly who is doing what, when and to what extent. It will also show how many of our staff are appropriately trained or have other Languages knowledge and expertise, including being a native speaker.
With the development of CfE, a focus on learner choice and the flexibility of the new National Qualifications, there has been a marked growth in the delivery of 2nd and 3rd languages in the secondary school.
Every CEC secondary school offers French plus at least one other language. Most schools are running taster sessions in 2nd, 3rd and occasionally 4th languages over the course of S1 – S3 with Language choices then being offered at various curricular choice points, depending on the curricular model of a particular school.
It is expected that composite S4 – S6 classes will prove to have a positive impact on the uptake of 2nd and 3rd languages as timetabling across more year groups could potentially lead to greater numbers and hence enable 2nd and 3rd language classes to run.
This will be monitored centrally to measure uptake of languages with the introduction of the new NQs. Improved flexibility in timetabling coupled with improved articulation between the levels of the NQs should also hopefully help to allow schools to run split level classes more practically.
1+2 recommendation number 16 states that:
The Working Group recommends that schools provide all young people with flexible opportunities and encouragement to study more than one modern language to the level of a National Qualification Unit or course in the senior phase, whether in their own school or through cluster arrangements with other schools.
This recommendation will be referenced in our revised CEC ML policy which is currently in development. We aim to launch this policy alongside our 1+2 strategy as part of CEC planned communications and engagement with head teachers. The timing and nature of this are currently under discussion within the recently created CEC 1+2 steering group.
Our aim is to recommend that schools work to ensure that almost all learners are accredited in ML by the point of leaving school education.
1. Is there enough funding for the Scottish Government’s proposal (including use of EU money)?
1.1 Budget Overview
If the very welcome £4 million earmarked for ML in the financial year 2013 – 2014 is agreed by the Scottish Parliament, we estimate that CEC would receive approximately £230,000. To determine if this would be adequate, we would need a clearer picture of the longer term funding proposed. Without this, it would be difficult for any LA to engage in longer term planning and to fully address sustainability.
In the Scottish Government 1+2 report there are 35 recommendations, all of which were accepted fully or in part in the Scottish Government response. 22 of the 35 relate directly to actions for LAs and schools. It is too early at this stage to be able to make anything better than an educated guess at the estimated costs of implementing all 22 recommendations in full, but it has already become clear from CEC steering group meetings and discussions with a range of stakeholders that the scale of the task is significant and therefore costly.
Some of the costs which will need to be factored in are:
Development and delivery of training models, including virtual models
Development of resources (in Edinburgh, for 6 different languages both for L2 and L3)
Cover for staff to attend professional learning sessions, engage in professional dialogue with other practitioners, share practice and attend meetings
Development of a communications strategy and packages for key stakeholders (engagement with head teachers, teachers, parents)
Funding devolved to schools to support development
On-going central co-ordination and support to schools for implementation
CEC draft funding proposals
In CEC, it is proposed that funding principally be used to support the following:
- Creation of a temporary 1+2 Development Officer post for 2013-14 – a lead practitioner seconded to take a leading role in coordinating and driving forward the 1 +2 strategy in Edinburgh (potentially with partner LAs). Working with the Education Support Officer and Quality Improvent Officer for Literacy and Languages.
- CPD including for MLPS trainers, cluster level support, MLPS training, partnership CPD (cultural institutes etc.), top up training in languages, further CPD with a focus on pedagogy (e.g. approaches to embedding language, active learning.), native speaker volunteer and FLA induction and other CPD and resource development
- Resource development including programmes of work/activities/strategies (in various languages), collating and sharing best practice, communications packages (for head teachers, teachers, learners and parents)
- Head teacher, practitioner, learner and parental engagement and celebration events
- Further development of other partnership working – e.g. liaising with FE, HE, cultural institutes, SCILT, CISS, business partners etc.
Suggested aspects for further consideration
1. We would recommend that the Scottish Government implementation group explore the possibility of a Hub model for implementation over groups of partner LAs.
2. We would also recommend that consideration be given network of 1+2 development officers is appointed to work across these Hubs or groups of geographically close LAs to coordinate training, strategy and to support the operational implementation of 1+2 in schools. This would help enable a national network, maintain a degree of national consistency and be cost effective.
3. It would be more cost effective and support LAs if support could be put in place nationally wherever possible, including the development of a national Communication Strategy to support LAs to engage with all key stakeholders.
The provision of FLAs by LAs across Scotland has been declining and is now infrequent.
CEC makes a substantial and sustained commitment to funding FLAs to work in our schools and finds them a very valuable and effective resource which enriches learning and teaching. CEC provides funding for 15 FLAs, including 2 Chinese Language Assistants, who work across 23 secondary schools. (Where available, native speaker input in primaries is provided by native speaking volunteers co-ordinated by the CEC International Unit).
In the short-term, CEC would find it extremely difficult to commit to an extension of our provision of FLAs until the sustainability of funding is clearer. Once again, a national approach would support consistency and equity.
Suggested aspects for further consideration
1. National guidance and funding should be put in place to support the equitable provision and extension of the FLA resource.
2. Do existing teachers have the skills and teaching resources available for language tuition? Are existing teachers and teaching assistants equipped to teach languages?
2.1 Resources and provision
In terms of resources, MLPS teaching programmes are in place in all primary schools across CEC. These were initially developed on the 5 -14 content models and have been adapted since then to bring them into line with the best practices and principles of CfE.
Planning for learning, assessment, reporting and moderation
The curriculum has been updated in 19 out of 23 clusters across CEC. The remaining 4 secondary schools have Modern Languages development within their Cluster Improvement Plan for session 2013/14. This is part of the strategic CEC approach to assessment, reporting and moderation within CfE where there is a rolling programme of implementation, based on cluster choice. This ensures that by the end of session 2013-14, all schools across the city will be reporting on learner progress at key stages within CfE levels 3-15 in all curricular areas.
To date 19 clusters have elected to report in Modern Languages. This process has been supported by the CEC Modern Languages ESO and schools have had guidance on bringing existing programmes of work into line with CfE principles and practice. There has also been extensive CEC resource development to support this.
This process has helped to revitalise cluster working to support curricular progression and sharing of standards and practice primary to secondary (recommendation 8) and has also helped promote consistency of provision and understanding of standards across clusters groups.
Some schools which are already teaching ML from P1 upwards have developed programmes of work for these levels and have since shared these with other schools who are looking to develop a similar approach.
2.2 ICT Resources
Many schools, particularly in the primary sector, are using more online and ICT based resources to support learning and teaching in ML. There are increasing numbers of teachers who implement resources for Ipads, tablets and hand held devices as schools are becoming increasingly well-resourced in terms of ICT. To emphasise this point further, it should be noted that a large number of CEC primary schools now have interactive whiteboards in all classrooms –which are now being used in learning and teaching across the curriculum.
ICT resources are a particularly effective and supportive means to deliver ML in the primary as they provide teachers with the correct pronunciation from a native speaker of the target language. The importance of this cannot be underestimated particularly as there are very variable degrees of language competency and confidence in primary teaching staff.
Furthermore, the Internet allows learners to connect with other learners around the world and to see videos etc. of life in target language countries. As a means of opening up other cultures to learners this is second only to actually going to the country itself.
Education Scotland has produced an excellent 2nd level resource, Passeport pour la Francophonie which is aimed at Level 2/3 learners. If this model could be replicated for P1 – P5 learners, it would be a highly effective support tool for teachers in delivering high quality ML lessons. This resource is currently only available in French and would be required in a range of languages to ensure the maintenance of diversity in languages learned.
The use of ICT and virtual learning also has a part to play in practitioner training nationally.
Suggested aspects for further consideration
1. Further national consideration and work on the innovative role of ICT in delivering the 1 +2 agenda. This would include using ICT to support the learning and teaching of ML for example piloting innovative ways to engage learners from the earliest stages in ML through using ICT in the classroom.
2. The role of ICT in delivering MLPS training for teachers nationally should be further explored.
2.3 Provision across clusters
Whilst there is improved consistency across clusters as a result of the CEC’s CfE assessment, reporting and moderation policy, as might be expected, there is still a level of inconsistency in terms of provision, delivery and quality of learning and teaching in ML.
For example in one primary school the curriculum may be being delivered from P1 upwards through an embedded classroom approach, by the class teachers who all feel reasonably confident in doing so. In another school there may be only one MLPS trained teacher or teacher with sufficient language competence to be able to deliver the curriculum. In this case, P6 and P7 would be prioritised and they would most likely receive approximately 45 minutes to 1 hour of MLPS teaching per week.
These illustrations show two extremes. A large number of schools fall somewhere between the two. It is also important to mention at this point that CEC will not have a completely accurate idea of how confident teachers feel as a whole until we have conducted the 1+2 audit.
Primary head teachers have been key in driving forward the model whereby learners start MLPS from the early stages of primary and this is largely linked to expectations and well-planned, accessible programmes, approaches and activities being in place.
Dual Language Model
Many schools have a dual language model which relies on there being adequate numbers of trained staff in two languages to be able to support and deliver the programme. Where this is an operational issue, schools sometimes rely on specialist peripatetic teachers to deliver the MLPS programme. This is particularly true of German.
This dual model system of delivery, particularly in German and French teaching primary schools, is at risk of moving to a single language (French) only model. CEC however encourages dual language schools as this model offers learners more diversity in their language learning. Therefore, while recognising the practical difficulties, we support schools, through discussion in line with CEC ML policy, to make decisions based on educational benefits when looking at range and choice of languages taught.
2.4 MLPS Training Course
CEC is committed to the sustainable provision of MLPS training in a range of languages and resources are in place to support this.
Over the last 3 years, CEC lead officers have developed new MLPS courses which are line with the principles, practice and pedagogy of CfE and built round the Level 2 Experiences and Outcomes.
These 60 hour courses focus on a mixture of language, pedagogy and culture. They currently run on a weekly twilight model and teachers attend - voluntarily after school over a considerable period of time - as part of their professional development. This shows a commendable level of commitment on the part of these practitioners and goodwill that is there to be built on.
The courses have been very positively evaluated by course participants. The training programme currently runs in French (every year), German (every two years) and Spanish (every two years). We are planning to introduce Italian from 2013 – 2014 and in February 2013 we will pilot a 6 week taster course in Mandarin and Chinese Studies in the primary school . The frequency of specific language courses will be reviewed as part of the development of 1+2.
In 2012/2013 we have 60 primary teachers enrolled on our French courses. There are 18 teachers enrolled on the Mandarin MLPS course starting in February 2013. In the past three years, 22 teachers have studied Spanish, 100 have studied French and 9 have studied German through our MLPS training programmes.
The classes are increasing in number each year with 2 French classes running this year for the first time. The classes are offered to East Lothian, West Lothian, Scottish Borders and Midlothian with participants from each, most notably East Lothian.
As part of CEC plans for 1+2, we aim to develop these courses to create an enhanced MLPS programme. This is due to our evaluations highlighting that the current model (although engaging and very well-received) does not necessarily afford adequate rigour due to the limited time scales and the widely varying language competencies of the participants.
We are therefore, planning to work with our cultural partners (starting with L’Institut Français) to develop and pilot an access course for teachers prior to starting the MLPS twilight course. This would give teachers the opportunity to develop their language competences more fully and would focus on ensuring the basic skills (pronunciation etc.) were in place. It is envisaged that practitioners would do this course and then move onto the MLPS course.
Immersion Courses for Teachers
CEC also promotes the Comenius In-service funding through our MLPS courses and through our primary and secondary ML networks to highlight the funding and courses available. These courses are fully funded and allow teachers to have 1 or 2 weeks of immersion training in the ML. We actively encourage MLPS training teachers to attend these courses wherever possible in order to improve their language skills beyond the 60 hour courses.
20 primary teachers have registered to attend the Français en Ecosse French and Spanish immersion courses in 2013.
Top Up Training
Further to this we also promote MLPS top up training and offer both CEC sessions and sessions in partnership with our cultural partners. L’Institiut Français offers top up MLPS sessions throughout the year which are well attended. These are immersion sessions delivered by native speakers. The Consejeria de Educacion also offers top up classes for primary teachers who are MLPS trained. We promote these classes through our network and through our MLPS classes.
2.5 Language Skills
As a result of CEC’s audit for 1+2, we will soon have a clearer picture of language skills across the city. However language skills are not the only issue when it comes to training of practitioners.
From previous surveys, it is clear that many CEC practitioners are MLPS trained but not currently delivering any MLPS curriculum. In some cases this may change from one year to the next with reorganisation of teaching hours in primary schools. In other cases, teachers may have been trained several years ago and no longer feel confident about teaching the ML curriculum or the pedagogy of Modern Languages.
As a result, future training needs to take account of the needs of practitioners at different stages in their careers and with differing levels of confidence. As well as addressing language skills and knowledge, training should be centred on pedagogy within CfE with which teachers are already comfortable and familiar, notably active learning.
3. Should there be more training and support for new and existing teachers for language teaching?
In terms of newly qualified primary teachers it is imperative, both in terms of school requirements and in terms of their own employability that they are fully aware of what the future expectation is and trained to meet it.
There has historically been a perception (and this is true both generally, in the wider community as a whole and amongst primary teachers) that languages are for a select few. There is an opportunity to take a significant step forward in attitudes to language learning with the 1+2 strategy but this will require a significant degree of engagement and training within ITE institutions. Ensuring that teachers have a certain degree of proficiency in at least one language (preferably two) by the time they qualify from teacher training is essential if this policy is to succeed on the longer term.
This could potentially be further supported by local authorities (or local authority groups) over the course of the Teacher Induction year and beyond through MLPS training programmes.
Please see question 2 for more information regarding MLPS training for teachers.
4. What is the capacity within the curriculum to accommodate greater language study?
In order to be able to respond fully to this question, CEC officers need to undertake further consultation with primary colleagues at all levels. This is therefore a key issue for discussion within and beyond CEC 1+2 strategic and working groups.
Embedding Languages across the Curriculum
As per question 5, there are opportunities for embedding ML across the curriculum. The success of this and extent to which it is possible is largely dependent on the confidence and ability of the classroom teacher and would most likely require a degree of specialist training and programmes of work to be developed to support this model.
Whilst there is not a one size fits all way to effectively deliver a ML curriculum within CfE, we encourage schools to look for opportunities to embed the language as much as possible in the day to day life of the school and to aim for a degree of consistency across cluster groups. Again, this requires a degree of practitioner confidence and specific training and resources to support.
5. Can language learning be embedded in existing teaching?
There are extensive opportunities for this. Many of the basics of ML learning already reflect wider learning in the primary school such as numbers, times, weather, colours etc. In addition to this, classroom language in the target language can be easily understood by learners if used regularly and repeatedly in the classroom and across the wider curriculum e.g. the daily register. Progression in this leads to learners confidently using the target language in the classroom e.g. Can I have etc.
In order to be able to do this effectively requires that practitioners have reasonable knowledge of the target language, a good level of confidence and some specific training on how to identify and maximise the ML opportunities across the 4 contexts of learning within CfE.
Suggested aspects for further consideration
1. Clear and progressive P1 – P7 programme/set of strategies/activities/approaches/ resources, with identified language which teachers can use, should be developed nationally to support this process.
6. The choice of languages for teaching – which languages should children be learning and why? The role of languages in economic development – what languages should children be learning to benefit their future careers, and to help Scotland flourish economically?
There is no one definitive answer to this question as there is educational, social and cultural value in every language learned.
The context in Edinburgh is that of a range of languages are being offered and this diversity is supported where possible. This could potentially be through teaching in one school or across the city through consortia arrangements, with the latter model being taken forward as part of CEC planning for the Senior Phase. Currently in CEC, the core languages are French, German, Spanish, Italian and Mandarin. We also currently offer Urdu and Gaelic in one secondary school and Gaelic in 8 primary schools.
In the long term, the aim is to foster an enthusiasm for and an open minded approach to language learning in learners and to encourage them to see languages as part of a range of skills they develop as they move through their education. This skill should be seen as transferrable and, as learners build confidence in their abilities in one language, they should recognise that they are then able to learn another of their choice. This reflects the aims of CfE to promote life-long learning of ML.
Progression and Language Choice
Regarding language choice, the aim is to ensure progression in one language from primary school through the Broad General Education and into the Senior Phase (if this is desirable and attainable for the learner) and for the local authority to provide a choice of languages which are sustainable and chosen for sound educational, economic and cultural reasons. Demographics (i.e. how widely spoken a particular language is), business and economic factors, availability of teaching resources, availability of SQA accreditation and qualifications in a language and personal impact can all help determine which languages we opt to offer at school level.
Accreditation and Language Choice
Schools and centres are bound to some extent by which languages are offered by the SQA - a restriction which can be a barrier to, accreditation / qualification for some young people.
This is currently true for the many native speakers of Polish in CEC schools, where there is currently no SQA qualification available. There is currently one CEC student studying Russian at Intermediate 2 Level. Otherwise, other than stand-alone units, Russian has now been phased out almost entirely by the SQA in recent years. In these cases, presenting centres look to alternative qualifications such as GCSE or A levels to ensure accreditation.
Suggested aspects for further consideration
1. Extension of SQA accreditation/qualification to reflect diversity and changing trends in language learning and demographics
Breakdown by Language
The European languages are still the most in demand according to the CBI Education for Skills and Growth Survey 2011(please see diagram below). The following diagram, taken from the report, shows where the demand lies in order of language.
This table highlights that French and the other European languages continue to be very much in demand with employers and it should not be forgotten or overlooked that our core languages also reflect which nations are Scotland’s main economic partners.
- Approximately 130 million speakers worldwide.
- A major place internationally with a large second language base around the world and 29 official Francophone countries.
- It is the working language of many of the large international organisations (United Nations, European Union, Council of Europe, International Court of Justice, UEFA, NATO to name a few) as well as being the working language of much of Africa.
- France is Scotland’s 3rd largest export partner (2010).
As previously stated, French is currently delivered in all 87 CEC primary schools. It has historically been a core language with all other languages being delivered in addition to French. French in the primary school is supported by a large number of French clubs which run in many primary schools around the city.
In the secondary it is again the main language taught, with all 23 secondary schools offering French until Higher level. Overall, CEC secondary schools have very strong attainment in French with a consistently improving performance over the past 5 years at Higher level.
S5/6 uptake is also strong, with a significant increase in the last two years.
An extensive range of resources for French have been developed in the primary and secondary schools. CEC staff are also supported by highly effective working partnerships with L’Institut Français, Le Français en Ecosse the universities and the CEC International Unit. This support ranges from French Institute days for primary teachers to Higher French learner immersion events to CPD run by the universities.
The CEC French MLPS course remains the most popular and well attended of all local MLPS courses with 100 participants taking part in the training over the past three years.
There are numerous exchanges and French trips which take place with a number of secondary schools offering exchange trips and cross-curricular trips to France (e.g. history and French).
- Germany is the largest national economy in Europe
- Germany is the 2nd largest exporter in the world
- Germany is the world’s 3rd largest importer
- Germany is Scotland’s fourth largest market for exports and has a rapidly developing renewable energy market, much like Scotland.
- Germany is Scotland’s fourth biggest export market and Scottish exports to Germany were worth £1,265 million in 2010. This figure is expected to grow given Germany’s decision to move away from nuclear energy and towards renewable energies, a growing market in Scottish business.
- Germany has the largest population of all the European nations.
- It is a leading political force in Europe
- More tourists visit Scotland from Germany than from any other country except the US.
- German is the 2nd language of a large number of Eastern European countries.
- German is often found to be easier for Scottish students to pronounce as many of the sounds are similar and there are also numerous Scots and German cognates with shared words such as loch, kirk and stoor. This also reflects the aims of CfE ML to make links between languages and opens up interdisciplinary opportunities.
German is currently being delivered in 11 Edinburgh secondary schools and 24 primary schools. Despite issues around the continuation of German in many clusters, it remains the second most taught language in Edinburgh schools.
In CEC, the uptake into the Senior phase has been consistently positive over the past 5 years and well above the national pattern. Similarly, the attainment is very positive with a strong positive trend over the past 5 years.
Figures show, however, that the teaching of German has declined both nationally and locally over the past decade and has unfortunately come to suffer something of an image crisis over time.
CEC have offered and ran a German MLPS course this session for 9 primary teachers. The existing MLPS course and support materials are in the process of being translated into German as on-going. The course reflects the principles of CfE and is based around active and cooperative techniques with a focus on German language and culture. The course is run in tandem with the French MLPS course.
German Working Group
In CEC, in 2010 we established a German working group to address the decline of German language delivery in our schools as it was identified through an audit of our secondary provision as an area for development. This coincided with work which was going on nationally to address the same issue, led by both the Goethe Institute and the German Consulate in Edinburgh.
It should be noted that once a language has been dropped from a school curriculum, reversing the process can be very difficult and all partners were keen to ensure that the correct messages about the importance of German were being communicated clearly.
Over the past two years, the efforts of the CEC German working group and its partners have succeeded in German provision being maintained in schools. For example CEC and its German partners ran a successful German career fair event which was attended by 16 schools nationally, 450 school learners, 20 business representatives and 70 university students. The aim of the event was to change perceptions about German and its use in the world of work. The event was very positively evaluated by the learners, teachers and business representatives in attendance.
- 2nd most widely spoken language in the world with 350 million speakers
- 2nd language of the USA with approximately 50 million speakers
- Spanish is mutually intelligible with Portuguese which is the 6th most spoken language in the world today and the 1st language of Brazil, a member of the BRIC group (Brazil, Russia, India and China) and as such recognised as one of the world’s largest developing economies.
- Spain is Scotland’s 7th largest export destination
- Large Scottish-Spanish industries include fishing and fisheries, tourism and financial sectors.
- Spanish business presence in the UK is growing through business takeover (e.g. Santander takeover of Abbey National, Telefonica takeover of O2, Iberia merge with BA etc.)
- Spanish culture is often perceived to be accessible to Scottish learners as it is a popular holiday destination.
Spanish is being offered in 17 secondary schools and 12 primary schools across CEC. Spanish language teaching is currently an area of growth in CEC schools. Many schools are taking advantage of new curricular models which promote learner choice to offer Spanish as a taster language or as an L3 option at points of curricular choice. Spanish is a growing language in a large number of CEC secondary schools and their associate cluster primaries. It is now offered in 18 out of 23 secondary schools in Edinburgh
Large numbers of Spanish exchanges, partnerships and trips are established. There are highly effective working partnerships in place with the Consejeria de Educacion, including top up MLPS training programmes, Advanced Higher immersion events for learners, resource sharing and development of reading resources
The CEC MLPS course has been delivered by a native speaker over two years to 20 primary teachers. The course and support materials were both very highly evaluated. The course had a large number of beginner students so focussed mainly on basic Spanish language skills, building confidence and Spanish culture. The course reflects the principles of CfE and is based around active and cooperative. The course was run in tandem with the French MLPS course.
An application is currently being submitted as part of Edinburgh, International City of Learning to develop a partnership project across a group of 5 primary schools in Madrid, the Edinburgh College and James Gillespie’s cluster in CEC. The project will aim to develop a teacher support package and develop partnership links between the two cities.
- Approximately 60 million speakers worldwide
- Official language of the Vatican
- Large demand for Italian speakers in technology, IT and telecoms sectors
- Historically taught in some denominational Roman Catholic schools
- Holyrood cluster is one of the largest centres for presentation of Higher Italian in Scotland
- ighHiHighly Successful programme of Italian and French delivered from Primary 4 throughout the Holyrood cluster
- Italian offered as a third language option in 4 CEC secondary schools
- MLPS Italian course to be developed and offered in 2013/2014
- Effective working partnerships with the Italina Ufficio de Educacion and the Centro Promozione
Italian is currently being delivered in 5 CEC primary schools and 5 CEC secondary schools. Holyrood RC High School is our main provider of Italian and currently runs both French and Italian on a yearly rotation model from P4 (at the latest) until the end of S3.
There is a consistently good level of uptake and positive attainment for Italian across the city. The delivery of Italian is supported through partnership working with the Italian Ufficio Scolastico.
An Italian MLPS training programme will be offered in 2013/2014. This will be hosted within the Holyrood cluster as this is our main centre for Italian in CEC. One aim of this will be to ensure greater sustainability in the delivery of Italian. The model which is currently in place is supported by the Italian Ufficio Scolastico (Italian Consulate Department). There will be MLPS taster sessions prior to running the course and it will be open to beginners in order to encourage uptake.
- 2nd largest economy in the world
- Most spoken language in the world with approximately 900 million speakers
- China is the world’s largest goods exporter and the world’s second largest goods importer.
- China has the world’s largest foreign exchange reserves, reaching $3.29 trillion at the end of September 2012.
- Establishment of CEC Confucius Classroom Hub at Leith Academy
- Appointment of CEC permanent Mandarin teacher
- Development of Mandarin MLPS course
- Growing number of primary and secondary schools looking to introduce Mandarin and Chinese studies
- Head teacher, teacher, school and student trips taking place annually.
- Wide range of cultural, cross-curricular and interdisciplinary learning and teaching opportunities
- National 4 Mandarin reading and listening materials are currently in development
- Very effective working partnerships with a range of partners including Confucius Institute for Scotland’s Schools, St.George’s School for Girls, East Coast Hub Network, local universities and Scotland-China Education Network.
Mandarin is currently delivered using a range of models in different secondary schools depending on their own circumstances and curriculum. Mandarin is currently being delivered in 6 secondary schools across the city and is another growth area in Languages.
2 CEC secondary schools deliver Mandarin up to SQA accreditation level with 1 school delivering Mandarin up to Advanced Higher level.
2 Chinese Foreign Language Assistants are employed and work in 4 secondary schools. The CEC Mandarin teacher is currently working in 2 secondary schools and associated primary schools on a rolling programme. As part of the Hub agreement, we expect to have a Tianjin teacher working in CEC schools in 2013/2014.
Careful planning will be needed both locally and nationally to enable the growing demand for provision of Mandarin in schools to be met.
CEC Confucius Classroom Hub
In February 2013, the City of Edinburgh Confucius Classroom Hub will be officially opened at Leith Academy. This is a significant milestone for Edinburgh in the learning and teaching of Mandarin as we move towards a strategically developed and sustainable model for the delivery of Mandarin across the city.
In August 2012 a permanent CEC Mandarin teacher was appointed to lead the development and learning and teaching of Mandarin in Edinburgh. A local authority employed teacher ensures that progression within a language to SQA accreditation level is possible. In 2013-14 Senior Phase Mandarin courses will be offered through consortia arrangements across the city.
As part of our commitment to developing a sustainable model for the delivery and growth of Mandarin, a Mandarin MLPS course has being developed and is due to start in February 2013. 18 teachers (17 primary and 1 secondary) have registered for this course.
Edinburgh International City of Learning - Let’s Learn a Language
To further support the delivery of Mandarin, a Chinese student volunteer programme will be put in place in 2013-14 in partnership with local universities and the Scotland China Education Network (SCEN) to support the development of Mandarin teaching in schools. The aim of this will be to enable teachers to develop their own Mandarin language skills in the classroom with the support of a Chinese native speaker. This project is due to start in autumn 2013 and will be part of the Hub development for next year.
- Oldest surviving Scottish language
- Clear links to own language, Scots and Nordic languages
- Wide range of cultural, cross-curricular and interdisciplinary learning and teaching opportunities
- Supported by 18 day GLPS (Gaelic Language in the Primary School) programme
- Wide range of local and national support resources available
- Supported by Gaelic special grant
- Gaelic Development Officer in permanent post to support development
- Gaelic secondary teacher with development remit appointed to CEC and deployed to schools to support development
- CEC Gaelic medium school opening in August 2013
Gaelic Medium Education (GME) is currently being delivered from nursery onwards in one CEC primary school. A new dedicated Gaelic medium primary school is due to open in August 2013.
Gaelic Learners Education (GLE) is currently being delivered in 8 CEC primary schools which equates to 350+ primary children receiving GLE every year. The GLE curriculum is mostly delivered in P5 with one school delivering GLE from P5 -P7. The curriculum is delivered by GLPS trained staff, supported in some cases by the GLPS teacher trainer. In CEC one primary school is also delivering some GLE in P1 this session.
One CEC secondary school currently delivers both GLE and GME programmes. Both are run from S1 onwards. GME through language lessons and social studies and GLE as 6 week taster blocks in S1 and S2 with an option to take Gaelic from S3 onwards.
GLPS – Gaelic in the Primary School
3 CEC primary staff are GLPS trained annually.
There have been approximately 14 members of CEC teaching staff trained in GLPS since 2005/2006.
The delivery of the GLPS training programme is funded separately thorough the Gaelic specific grant.
Submission from COSLA
COSLA welcomes the opportunity to provide a response to the Committee’s Enquiry. We attended the launch event on 27th November 2012, of “Language Learning in Scotland: A 1+2 Approach – From Policy to Practice” which we welcome.
We have studied the document issued at the event in detail. We note the Committee’s Enquiry only relates to primary schools and have attempted to provide answers to the questions posed:
Is there enough funding for the Scottish Government’s proposal (including use of EU money)?
Since the launch event held by Scottish government in Stirling last November, we have held discussions with Scottish Government officials on the working group report and the Government response. Officials have indicated that Ministers are committed to this policy and will look at adequate resource requirements in consultation with COSLA and other partners. The message on resources is to be welcomed. At the time of writing we have still to carry out an analysis of local authority costs so this makes it difficult to make any assumptions on the extent of the cost to deliver this policy proposal.
The Minister for Learning, Sciences and Scotland’s Languages has indicated that £4m will be available to local authorities in 2013/14 to progress this policy area. We understand this figure is based on a grant previously provided to local authorities for language tuition which was called “The Languages Fund”. We are aware that the Languages Working Group suggests that there will be need to be at least double or triple the previous language funding to assist local authorities “to take forward the proposed language strategies on a phased basis from 2013-14 and beyond.” As we go on to discuss later in this submission, the resource implications for local authorities will not be apparent until further work is carried out at the local level.
The Languages Working Group calls for local authorities to hold an audit of resources they currently have in place and to develop plans to deliver the policy. These plans need to be developed in order for the costs to be calculated, so we cannot provide a precise answer to the question on whether there is enough resources to deliver the proposals at this time. Once the full costs have been identified we would expect these to be fully resourced by the Scottish Government. This will form part of our on-going discussion with Scottish Government on the policy implementation.
The use of EU funding is not discussed in the Language Learning document. We are aware of The Comenius programme which is managed in the UK by The British Council. This programme provides funding for CPD tor teachers and offers them the opportunity to develop their teaching and language skills within Europe. While programmes like this are welcome it is important to emphasise that service delivery and capacity building cannot be wholly reliant on EU funding.
We are aware that the British Council has already given evidence to the Committee on this matter and called for ring-fencing of funds for language tuition. Language education cuts across the curriculum, and is part of the broad, general education which all Scottish school pupils receive. As we go on to discuss in question 3, language education is not a ‘stand-alone’ subject which means it can only be properly delivered through local government core funding. It will therefore come as no surprise to the committee that COSLA does not support ring-fencing of local government resources and that Ministers agree that local government is best placed to make decisions on local priorities for funding of services.
Do existing teachers have the skills and teaching resources available for language tuition? Are existing teachers and teaching assistants equipped to teach languages? Should there be more training and support for new and existing teachers for language teaching?
The languages strategy could have significant implications for initial teacher training. We expect both new and existing teachers and support staff to require training and support.
The Languages Working Group and Scottish Government have noted that there are a number of primary teachers who have been trained on earlier language initiatives programme such as “Modern Languages in Primary Schools” and “Gaelic Languages in Primary Schools”. The audit that councils are being asked to undertake is designed to identify the number of teachers who have language skills and additionally whether the staff feel confident enough to utilise these skills as part of their current teaching role. The audit will also identify staff without foreign language teaching skills.
The Committee will be aware that the teaching of languages in schools tends to start in Primary 6, although we are aware that there are some schools across the country which start language education much earlier. In a number of those cases, language education is provided by outside specialists rather than the class room teacher. In moving to language learning from Primary 1 we understand the intention is to have nearly all existing and all new staff trained to provide language tuition throughout primary years. This will require more staff to use existing, or to learn new language skills.
If this training and re-training of staff takes place in school time, posts will need to be back filled and this has cost implications.
Utilising people in the community who have foreign languages as their mother tongue and getting them into schools is promoted in both the report and the Scottish Government response. This is something which COSLA strongly supports, although we recognise that this has to subject to teacher supervision. While not an answer to all the challenges of delivering enhanced language education, inviting members of the community into the class room could help enrich the learning experience of pupils. This has to be of long term benefit for both pupils and teachers and is completely consistent with the ethos of the Curriculum for Excellence.
What is the capacity within the curriculum to accommodate greater language study? Can language learning be embedded in existing teaching?
With Curriculum for Excellence it may now be somewhat easier to accommodate languages into the curriculum, with subjects being interlinked and embedded rather than being stand alone.
Local authorities need to provide a balanced curriculum and prioritising any area of education has the potential to impact on other subject areas. In addition to languages there is curricular pressure including a push for sciences and maths in both primary as well as secondary schools.
There are a number of examples where embedding language learning is used and this is seen as being very effective. This approach is not widespread but the examples are encouraging. It cannot be assumed however that this can be replicated easily in other parts of the country as staff to provide such teaching may not be in place and work to train such staff will be needed.
The choice of languages for teaching – which languages should children be learning and why?
While the Languages Working Group did not specify a hierarchy of importance, they acknowledged that the act of learning any foreign language can motivate pupils in other areas of their studies. We would support this view. Learning foreign languages is recognised as beneficial in developing a greater understanding of other cultures.
When making decisions about which languages to teach, the existing pool of local teaching resources needs to be taken into account as well as local demand and community resources. We cannot make a decision to concentrate on specific languages if there is no capacity to teach them. Currently French is the most widely taught language, which has been the case for several decades although we are aware that teaching of other ‘traditional’ languages, such as German and Italian, has declined in recent years in favour of other language e.g. Spanish. This shows that there is an ‘ebb and flow’ in language popularity in part reflecting cultural attitudes and perhaps the perceived ‘usefulness’ of languages. It also demonstrated the impact that personal choice can have on language education. This also underlines the point which we return to in the next question that it is important not to focus on a specific list of languages, but to ensure young people have the skill set which to enables them to effectively learn any language that they choose.
In principle, we agree that there is merit in teaching a range of languages. In practice however, there is less scope in certain parts of the country, especially, though not exclusively in rural areas. We are aware that the use of video conferencing is growing and this should be utilised where available. The initiative on widening broadband access should help this grow further as a teaching tool.
It is important that there is continuity from primary to secondary schools with children having the opportunity to continue with the language they started in primary when they reach secondary school. School clusters already address this, but it should be noted that while the emphasis here is on primary language learning, expectations resulting from the increased primary provision may need to be managed regarding the on-going availability of any specific language teaching at secondary level.
The role of languages in economic development – what languages should children be learning to benefit their future careers, and to help Scotland flourish economically?
We acknowledge the comments from the Languages Working Group about the benefits associated with learning Gaelic and other languages. Having a population of young adults with language skills and the enthusiasm and ability to learn further languages and appreciate other cultures should lead to both their personal and Scotland’s economic benefit. But there are caveats that should be recognised.
We agree that there is a connection but economic growth should not in and of itself be the key driver. We remain of the view that that the beginning of the learning journey needs to focus on a grounding in key skills. Language learning at primary level should be part of the development and enhancement of those skills, in the same way as we would view science, environmental and social studies and music. These subjects should be part of the stimuli offered to children to widen their learning horizons and the link cohesively to Curriculum for Excellence at primary level.
Teaching children a language from P1 through secondary school is a long process. There is a danger if we prescribe only languages which we see as leading to economic benefit that we pick the wrong languages. We need to be careful not to be drawn into this direction, without first highlighting the importance of a broad education at primary level as the driving principle held by education authorities. To use economic drivers to prescribe language tuition runs a real risk of not acknowledging the long term investment required in language teaching, which cannot be easily diverted to respond to changes in the global economy. Teaching key languages should not be viewed as restricting contributions to economic growth, rather – it should be viewed as a stimulus for learning other languages, once the principles of language are embedded.
But we do accept that learning foreign languages should have a positive impact on economic outcomes. Future employers will undoubtedly look for such skills and it makes sense that in preparing young people for the job market, they need encouragement to development those skills required to secure their own economic future and that of their country.
Submission from Le Francais en Ecosse
I trained to become an MLPS tutor for French in 1999.
I have since trained Primary Teachers in several Scottish Local Authorities, under different formats: from the original 27 day training programme to a combination of twilight sessions and full days.
I have been running CPDs throughout Scotland for Primary and Secondary school teachers and pupils, mostly in French but also in Spanish.
With my organisation, LFEE, I have been running Immersion Courses for teachers in France and in Spain under the EU Comenius “Lifelong Learning” programme. Around 500 Scottish teachers have taken part in one of our 1 week courses over the years. All of them received a grant from the British Council which covers travel expenses, course fee, accommodation and subsistence.
For the past 3 years, we have been running 1 week shadow programmes also under Comenius. Under that programme, Scottish teachers go to France or Spain to shadow a colleague in his/her school for 5 days (we provide them with a 2 day cultural/language preparation in that country). Some groups of French teachers have also come to shadow a Scottish colleague, which has been wonderful for school exchanges.
We are currently running 3 of the Scottish Government pilot projects as part of the 1+2 Initiative: in St Elizabeth’s primary School in Hamilton, Hillside Primary School in Dundee, and Langlands Primary School in Forfar. In these schools, we are trying to embed the teaching of L2 from Primary 1, and L3 at P5, in line with the recommendations of the 1+2 Initiative.
- Is there enough funding for the Scottish Government’s proposal (including use of EU money)? (The money earmarked by the Scottish Government is £120k for the pilot projects, and £4M for after the pilots in 2013-14).
This new Initiative will require extra funding to train Primary School teachers and to pay for liaison meetings between primary and secondary schools. Introducing L2 from P1 means that all Primary teachers have to be able to teach a language, and primary and secondary schools will have to work together to ensure continuity.
As far as the training of Primary teachers is concerned, we cannot go back to the original 27-day training programme, which was very expensive to run. I believe we must use a mixture of CPDs and on-line training and support, which will enhance the existing training programmes and make it more cost effective. Linguistic tips and suggested activities could be made available on-line.
In the longer term, we must make sure that all graduate teachers come out of their initial training programme with the skills to teach a foreign language. The profile of languages must be raised in Secondary schools so that pupils come out of their compulsory education with the required skills should they choose to go into Primary Education, and which they will need in other jobs and in their personal life too!
We can also use EU money to send our teachers abroad to work on their language and methodology skills.
We also have fewer schools in Scotland than in Créteil a single suburb of Paris - where we are currently running an exchange programme Fife-Créteil Exchange. Small is beautiful! Let’s use this and the fact that our schools are well equipped with computers and internet to our advantage and let’s connect Scottish schools to the rest of Europe. In other words, yes, we will need extra funding, but there are good cost effective ways of using that money.
- Do existing teachers have the skills and teaching resources available for language tuition? Are existing teachers and teaching assistants equipped to teach languages? Should there be more training and support for new and existing teachers for language teaching?
Many of our teachers in Scotland have been MLPS trained, but not all of them teach a language at the moment. However, teachers do need some language skills, and even if we give them extra on-line support (see above), they will still need ongoing language training.
- What is the capacity within the curriculum to accommodate greater language study? Can language learning be embedded in existing teaching?
I believe that in order to teach L2 from P1, we must embed it into the curriculum. It has to fit into each teacher’s learning contexts, not be an “add on”. With our 3 pilot projects, we have tried to identify interdisciplinary activities to help embed the language into the life of the schools: teaching L2 through maths, cross-curricular ICT, PE and, very importantly, daily routines.
- The choice of languages for teaching – which languages should children be learning and why?
I believe that for historical, cultural and economic reasons, one of the three main European languages (Spanish, French and German) must be taught at primary level. Europe is our main trading partner and we share a common history and culture. We must nurture and enhance these ties!
The choice of a third language can be left to individual schools to fit their particular context and/or the school community.
The most important element is continuity from the Primary through to the Secondary schools. The choice of languages must be made in conjunction with all partners and stakeholders.
Submission from Scottish Parent Teacher Council
The Scottish Parent Teacher Council (SPTC) thanks the European and External Relations Committee for the opportunity to give evidence to its enquiry into the learning of foreign languages in primary schools. In developing our response we have carried out desk research and discussed the issues extensively with individual parent members and board members.
SPTC is a long-standing independent charitable organisation providing support to parents and carers across Scotland. Our membership numbers almost 2000 parent groups all over Scotland. We provide information and support to parents and seek to represent the parental perspective in relation to educational issues.
Just as our members come from all parts of Scotland, so to do our board members, who are both teachers (primary and secondary) and parents. We are fortunate enough to have a number of linguists within our board and they have contributed significantly to this paper.
Scotland – indeed the UK – has struggled with a poor tradition of language learning for very many years. We have traditionally offered relatively restricted language options in schools, focusing on language learning in early secondary school and offered little encouragement to pupils to work towards a qualification. The challenge is both within and without schools: there is a widely held cultural attitude which is at best disinterested in language learning, and at worst hostile or defensive of English as the international language.
Recent years have seen a marked drop in language assistants in schools and – despite the work on global citizenship and other initiatives - SQA has reported falling numbers of young people taking language qualifications. There appears to be little coherence in relation to language learning strategies: initiatives (for instance around teaching of Mandarin in schools) come and go and appear to be predicated on the enthusiasm and determination of individual head teachers and faculty heads.
Although this enquiry relates specifically to primary school, the committee should be aware that parents are expressing concern about the approach of the secondary sector, which appears to be taking us towards a situation where still fewer young people will have the opportunity to pursue languages as the curriculum narrows in the senior phase. Put simply, even if good work is done in the primary sector, it may come to naught if senior phase options mean languages (among other subjects) are frozen out later on.
Answering your Questions
The Committee has asked that responses focus on a number of specific questions. The following outlines the thinking of SPTC.
1. Is there enough funding for the Scottish Government’s proposal (including use of EU money)?
While we agree with the principle of widening the experience of languages for primary school pupils, we have grave concerns that the resource implications have not been considered sufficiently. This will require that teachers in primary school hold appropriate qualifications in language teaching: this is currently not the case and will require a substantial investment (and significant time) to make this a reality. While we support aspirational approaches, we are concerned that 1+2 is simply an unachievable target within the foreseeable future and feel that an initial target of 1+1 may be more realistic.
There is of course potential for teachers qualified for secondary teaching to play a part, but we are concerned that there is insufficient resource available and also that language learning would be treated as another ‘subject’ area, rather than an integral part of learning about the culture and other facets of a language, building on the concept of Curriculum for Excellence.
Indeed, it may be that primary school is already late and that pre-school is the place where language learning should start. There are of course significant implications in such an approach: that debate is for another time and place.
2. Do existing teachers have the skills and teaching resources available for language tuition? Are existing teachers and teaching assistants equipped to teach languages? Should there be more training and support for new and existing teachers for language teaching?
The resounding response to this question is No. Teachers may use a wide range of strategies to address language learning (for instance working with bilingual children, using them to help build knowledge of culture and language in other pupils) but we believe there are small numbers who hold appropriate teaching qualifications. We do not believe it is sufficient for teachers to have school or other certificated qualifications in a language: this does not make them qualified to teach that language and may in fact lead to difficulties later in the child’s school career if the foundations have not been properly put in place.
Visiting specialists may be able to bridge some of the gap but this is a limited resource, with generally a small group of teachers in each cluster. They will not be able to cover the demand of primary schools. As with classroom teachers, increasing their number will involve a substantial investment and time for individuals to achieve qualifications.
Former secondary school language teachers are likely to be more widely available to act as visiting specialists as the impact of senior phase restrictions really kick in. The implication of this is however not lost on the parents and teachers we have spoken to: shifting more language teaching to primary school may lead to more able pupils during the Broad General Education phase (although schools do not offer Intermediate or equivalent in S1, forcing young people to start again and leading to boredom and dissatisfaction!), but will continue the trend towards fewer young people continuing their learning in the Senior Phase.
3. What is the capacity within the curriculum to accommodate greater language study? Can language learning be embedded in existing teaching?
As identified earlier, we believe language learning should not be treated as a discreet subject but rather than be an integral part of learning about the global community, its cultures and history. Treated in this way, language learning does not demand additional capacity within the curriculum but rather requires different approaches to teaching. Again, this sits comfortably within the principles of CfE.
4. Which languages should children be learning and why?
There are very many, well documented, cognitive and other benefits to be gained from language learning and we will not rehearse these here, other than to pour scorn on the traditional Scottish perspective that languages are the first curricular area to be removed for young people who are experiencing difficulties: the research clearly demonstrates that for very many children, the opposite is true.
As indicated earlier, we advocate a model of language learning which is cross-curricular and therefore builds the capacity of our young people to operate effectively in the global community.
However, children and their parents are likely to want to see a value in the specific language learned. These benefits will come through increased opportunities for work and travel. Currently the focus is on French and German in most schools: while these give opportunities for work in the EU, in terms of the global economy, there appears to be a limited future in either of these (indeed German appears currently to be a dying language in Scottish schools).
Spanish is taught in some schools and our perception is that the potential benefits are substantial: the number of Spanish speaking countries/populations is significant, with a huge opportunity in the global economy. There are only two other languages which can compete with Spanish: Mandarin and Russian.
Mandarin is a challenging language to learn which, despite the best efforts of SCEN and other initiatives, may predict its success in our schools (particularly when moving to the Senior Phase). However, the rise of Chinese economy and the opportunities this presents demands that we do not underestimate the importance of Mandarin. Mandarin is probably the most-spoken language in the world (see table below for countries/populations where Mandarin is one of the primary languages) and as such we believe should be a priority in our schools.
|Population of China: 1.4 billion
Population of Taiwan: 23 million
Population of Singapore: 4.58 million
Total of three countries: 1.427 billion
Similarly, we believe Russian has huge potential in the global economy, but is not widely supported in Scottish schools. The SQA decided in 2007 that qualification in Russian will be abandoned in 2015. The Slavonic departments in universities are facing cut backs, limiting the opportunities for young people to study any Slavonic languages in Scotland, including Russian.
This Summer Institute for Linguistics (SIL) Ethnologue Survey (1999) (below) lists the top languages by population. This provides an illustration as to the languages which are most spoken: most of these are currently neglected in our schools yet are the prime languages in the globe’s emerging economies. Surely Scottish school pupils deserve a more thoughtful approach to the planning of language teaching?
Summer Institute for Linguistics (SIL) Ethnologue Survey (1999)
- Chinese* (937,132,000)
- Spanish (332,000,000)
- English (322,000,000)
- Bengali (189,000,000)
- Hindi/Urdu (182,000,000)
- Arabic* (174,950,000)
- Portuguese (170,000,000)
- Russian (170,000,000)
- Japanese (125,000,000)
- German (98,000,000)
- French* (79,572,000)
* The totals given for Chinese, Arabic, and French include more than one SIL variety
5. The role of languages in economic development – what languages should children be learning to benefit their future careers, and to help Scotland flourish economically?
Please see (4) above.
Submission from the Scottish Association for Language Teachers (SALT)
Please find below the response from SALT to the Government Proposal of 1+ 2 languages.
We are very excited about the potential that this will bring and the position it will put Scotland in for the teaching and learning of Modern Languages, not only nationally but internationally.
The views expressed are that as a collective group and not that of any one individual.
SALT Response to 1+2
In terms of sufficient funding for the 1+2: there has be no official breakdown of funding given publically other than a figure quoted for pilot projects. The initial “bidding” for these projects was done quickly and while we appreciate that they are still being piloted, there has not been a lot of criteria made available publically to that end. We would hope that there would be wide dissemination of the evaluations of these projects with ideas on how further funding would be distributed.
In terms of accessing European Funding: If Scottish Government is indeed committed to the learning of languages then maximum funding to look at co-ordinated CPD and development for practioners from 3-18.
Some local authorities already contribute to the funding towards secondary teachers gaining an ATQ in another language and also top up funding for MLPS training with a potential independence referendum on the cards, engaging with European partners and funding would allow us the chance to work within a common framework and look at good practice and learn from it. This would cement our position as major player in the teaching and learning of Modern Languages.
Having a qualification either on entry or exit of BEd course would be desirable but MUST link up to some sort of national programme. At the moment there is no parity of experience for learners in different authorities and just having a basic user level of language does make a language teacher. There are also serious concerns about how this language component would be delivered and how it would be taken forward. Would departments in universities be obliged to offer e.g. French for teaching purposes? What would this look like? Would there be parity in TEIs?
Even on exit having an equivalent of a Higher language would still require training in methodology and particular authority resources to assure parity of experience and to be robust enough to stand up to quality assurance.
Does this then beg the question about going back to a national programme?
Existing Teachers and Skills:
There is a patchy picture of the skills base for teachers at primary and secondary level. An audit needs to be looked at in terms of training across authorities. Again, different models of training exist in many authorities, some share training and some buy in training. Language training and methodology training particularly in different ways to manage 1+2 would be welcome. This should come perhaps from some of the current pilots who could show manageable models of challenge and delivery. The question on national training also needs re visited….
The numbers of FLAs needs to increase. The demise of FLAs has unfortunately been a question of finance rather than impact. Ideas have been mooted about a pool of assistants paid for by Scottish Government with local authorities bidding for FLAs. SALT would welcome this very much. Using native speakers from the local community is also another way of having mother tongue input. This is a great way of inspiring young people as well as providing invaluable linguistic exposure. Such use of native speakers requires PVG and inductions. SALT would welcome such a move but would like further exemplification of how this would work at local level.
Head teachers & Extra Support
Head teachers in primary and secondary are key if 1+2 is to succeed. In terms of support for them at leadership level – this may involve training, observation and resources. Supporting our senior managers is going to be the best way to get the message across that languages matter and that they can be delivered in a real context. Either a head teacher or a member of the senior leadership team needs to be the key in driving modern languages and they must be supported. This not should be in terms of facts and figures but with peer support from fellow senior managers and at a local authority level.
Local Communities and Parents:
Parents and local community representatives should be engaged at every opportunity to enhance language provision. Looking at using local resources whether they are cultural centres, other places of education or family members has to be an option. Using people in the community helps schools to ascertain their place as centres for lifelong learning and would actually help to build up relationships in the community.
Great language learning can be achieved by CLIL. This can be done for particular areas of the curriculum e.g. Art, music, PE to start with and as teacher capacity and confidence grows, other areas. The difference needs to be made between CLIL and the discreet study of language. These involve completely different approaches and we must guard against the traps of people have a “smattering” of the language and delivering other curricular areas through it. The delivery of discreet languages in primary by someone who has not done at least MLPS training has to be guarded against also.
SALT would not be lobbying for a particularly hierarchy of languages to be taught in primary or secondary. It is recognised that some further guidance on this would be very welcome. It is mainly dictated by teacher availability and suites of qualifications available from SQA. The perfect time is when learners are motivated and it is well documented that the earlier the better. Language acquisition in early primary works due to the notion of a little and often and that learning through play and normal interactions become part and parcel of the daily life in nursery or primary.
For more children to learn languages, we need more staff that can teach languages and more staff who are engaged with languages and want to help – even by drip feeding where they can on the most basic of levels.
Engagement from learners comes from good teaching and learning and this is supported by AiFL principles, the use of collaborative learning and the use of ICT. Suitable use of varied resources and teaching styles will engage learner. Learners will also be engaged if they see the relevance in what they are learning and how impacts on their daily life. Engagement with local business and enterprise would present a great link for languages.
This is always a tricky issue. There must be continuity of language for learners from primary to secondary and local authorities must strive to keep this the norm.L2 should be available to 3rd level for all pupils as per national requirements. More work at transition at the key points such as nursery to primary and primary to secondary need to be looked at. Not forgetting secondary to further and higher education. There are pockets of good practice e.g. learning communities, Strathclyde Language Ambassador Project, adopt a class etc.
The SALT committee recognise the challenge that delivering 1+2 brings but most definitely agrees that it can be done.
- We would welcome a debate to a national programme for MLPS
- We are in favour in a language qualification for primary teachers as part of their ITE but caution against that being the only qualification they need to deliver in a class.
- We would welcome a pool of FLAs that could be accessed at authority level and would work with the British Council to make this happen.
- We would fully support the engagement and chance to work with senior managers in both primary and secondary to look at leadership in Modern Languages
- We would like to see examples of the pilot projects currently underway in order to give local authorities time to plan for academic session 2013-2014
- We believe that other areas in the curriculum would benefit from being taught in another language as the main language – CLIL. Further examples of this that could be replicated in primary would be most welcome.
- We also believe that local authorities need to look at the resources available to them and make the most of them in order to maximise the delivery of languages to all our young learners.
- If Scotland is going to be a leading light on the teaching and learning of Modern Languages, then we must engage with all stake holders both on a national and international level.
5th Meeting, 2013 (Session 4), Thursday 7 March 2013
Submission from National Association of Schoolmasters Union of Women Teachers (NASUWT (Scotland))
1. The NASUWT welcomes the opportunity to submit evidence to the European and External Relations Committee of the Scottish Parliament as part of their inquiry into Learning Languages in Primary Schools.
2.The NASUWT is the fastest growing teachers’ union in Scotland and the largest in the UK.
3. The NASUWT is in principle in full support of students having access to foreign languages from primary school. The NASUWT believes that a 1+2 model, as proposed by the Scottish Government to enable all young people to learn two languages, in addition to their mother tongue whilst at primary school, is a laudable aim. It is however essential that sufficient support is provided to schools to ensure that the students are able to access this entitlement.
4. It is understood that the intention of the Scottish Government is to have all children learning a second language from Primary 1, and that the learning of a third language should start no later than Primary 5, and further that this proposal is to be implemented within the next decade. The NASUWT is concerned that without substantial planning, including in-depth consideration of the logistical challenges and how these are to be overcome, as well as sufficient long-term ring-fenced funding, a ten-year implementation timeframe appears very short and unrealistic.
5. The NASUWT considers that there is a lot of positive work being undertaken in schools across Scotland to engage in and enhance foreign language learning. It is important that the Committee takes time to recognise and acknowledge the commitment, dedication and hard work of the education profession in Scotland in this regard.
Is there enough funding for the Scottish Government’s proposal (including use of EU money)? (The money earmarked by the Scottish Government is £120k for the pilot projects, and £4m for after the pilots in 2013-14.)
6. In the current economic climate significant cuts across Scotland have been made to local authority budgets, and funding for specialist areas, such as foreign language teachers in the primary sector, have been radically reduced, if not withdrawn altogether. The challenges of meeting the aim of a 1+2 approach without adequate funding are great indeed.
7. In order to reap the benefits economically and educationally, any funding must be guaranteed in the long term. Funding should also be ring-fenced to ensure that it is not swallowed up within already over-stretched local authority budgets.
8. It will be impossible to assess whether sufficient funding has been identified to support the proposal if an assessment of the challenges and the solutions has not been undertaken. An effective planning stage will be critically important to the successful integration of this initiative within primary schools.
Do existing teachers have the skills and teaching resources available for language tuition? Are existing teachers and teaching assistants equipped to teach languages? Should there be more training and support for new and existing teachers for language teaching?
9. The NASUWT is concerned that making foreign language teaching compulsory in the primary sector could result in all primary teachers being asked to take the lead in foreign language lessons without having the appropriate skill or teaching resources. Teachers come from various backgrounds, all of which provide for a rich and diverse Scottish teaching profession, but this will of course result in different challenges for different members of staff.
10. All primary teachers have been trained as generalists. In order for them to be able to deliver the expected standards, sufficient sources of local expertise in modern languages need to be identified. The NASUWT is in favour of resource sharing between schools, either by local authority or in a cluster. Central support will be needed to ensure that primary schools are not left scrabbling to find expertise in order to fulfil a national commitment.
11. There are two obvious sources of support: firstly, specialist teachers coming in to teach the modern language part of the curriculum and provide expert knowledge and advice in terms of the pedagogy of foreign language teaching and learning; and secondly, non-teaching foreign language assistants who can work alongside teachers. Indeed, in the Language Learning in Scotland: A 1+2 Approach report the use of non-teaching staff to provide the relevant language input is discussed.
12. The NASUWT’s preferred model would be the use of specialist peripatetic teachers providing language learning in the primary sector while allowing individual teachers to develop areas of interest through lifelong learning. Such a model would secure teacher jobs, recognising the current challenges in maintaining teacher numbers and education funding. There is however nothing to prevent a mixture of both models, provided there is a clear demarcation of the role, and the responsibility for the teaching and learning continues to lie with qualified teachers. Regardless of the model adopted, to ensure success there must be good external support structures, otherwise there can be no assurance of any consistency of practice.
13. Consideration needs to be given to the training of teachers, not just during their Initial Teacher Education (ITE) but through lifelong learning. The NASUWT is concerned that this inquiry is being viewed in isolation to the equal but different push to encourage students to study Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths (STEM). Undoubtedly, there will be some teachers with a greater aptitude for foreign languages, but viewing this in a wider context, it is impossible for primary teachers to be specialists in all fields. The NASUWT considers it is better to allow primary teachers to remain generalists while empowering those with an aptitude or interest to develop their skill using Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and lifelong learning.
14. In order to achieve this lifelong learning model, the role of further education and higher education institutions needs to be examined in depth. A clear plan is needed to establish how CPD would be delivered and what the cost implications would be.
15. The NASUWT is keen to ensure short twilight courses are not viewed as sufficient training to expect primary teachers to lead all foreign language learning, and would suggest detailed consideration is given to Modern Languages in Primary Schools (MLPS) training which would involve day release over an extended period. That is not to detract from the merit of twilight courses which can assist by giving teachers confidence to embed language learning throughout the curriculum in order to reinforce learning and support the specialist teachers.
What is the capacity within the curriculum to accommodate greater language study? Can language learning be embedded in existing teaching?
16. Certainly the implementation of Curriculum for Excellence will assist in embedding language learning within the curriculum, as it encourages teachers to use their professional expertise and creativity to show how subjects can be linked, just as they are in life and work.
17. There must be clarity for teachers on the judgements and expectations of Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Education (HMIe) during inspections on modern languages in the primary sector and there will be an important role for Education Scotland, in conjunction with Scotland’s National Centre for Languages (SCILT), to provide guidance and best practice advice to the teaching workforce in this area.
18. The NASUWT remains concerned however that students with additional support needs (ASN) have not had sufficient consideration. It is important that the Scottish Government does not inadvertently create a two-tier system which undermines learning within the mainstream. The NASUWT recommends therefore that a detailed equality impact assessment is undertaken.
The choice of languages for teaching – which languages should children be learning and why?
19. Curriculum for Excellence refers to students ‘developing a knowledge and understanding of the world and Scotland’s place in it’. Learning foreign languages at primary school is an integral part of preparing young people for life and active participation in a global multicultural society. The global context Scottish schools are operating in will undoubtedly influence the decision on which languages should be taught.
20. The question of which languages should be taught is not simply an academic question, but is a logistical challenge. The current position, where local authorities have had the autonomy to push the foreign language agenda independently has led to considerable variation. Any attempt to move to a uniform entitlement for all schools will undoubtedly place pressure on the primary sector.
21. The choice of language to be promoted should give consideration to continuity across primary classes and ensuring appropriate primary/secondary links. There is no way to mitigate against pupils moving across clusters and between local authorities, and a decision will need to be made on whether a national or local arrangement would therefore be advisable. Unfortunately, it is not only the transient nature of pupils which will need to be considered. Primary teachers are routinely moved between primary classes from nursery up to P7; headteachers would want to maintain this flexibility for deploying staff, and teachers too would wish to maintain their skill set while approaching different ages and stages throughout their career. Even where teachers are static to a certain year group, this would not account for staff turnover, pregnancy and supply issues during long-term absence. Whilst there may be greater choice in recruitment in the central belt, it is to be anticipated that rural areas may not have the opportunity to recruit teachers with a specific foreign language knowledge. The workforce planning issues and recruitment challenges contribute to making full implementation in the next 10 years difficult.
The role of languages in economic development – what languages should children be learning to benefit their future careers, and to help Scotland flourish economically?
22. The NASUWT would wish to flag the issue of General Teaching Council for Scotland (GTCS) registration. Teachers wishing to teach in the secondary sector must be qualified in their chosen subject. In order to be registered for a second language, applicants must currently, in addition to meeting the requirements for the first foreign language, also have a degree with at least 80 credit points in the second language they want to teach, and have lived for at least three months in a country where the language is spoken before starting the course.
23. Should the Scottish Government decide to promote a language which is not widely taught at the moment, and wish this to flow from the primary to the secondary sector across the board, it would be unreasonable to expect the teaching cohort to move en masse abroad for 3 months to meet the current GTCS requirements; there would be a considerable financial and personal cost to individual teachers who may have family and caring commitments.
Submission from the Educational Institute of Scotland (EIS)
1. The Educational Institute of Scotland welcomes the opportunity to provide evidence to Committee. The EIS is Scotland’s largest teacher trade union across all sectors of education.
2. The EIS welcomes the commitment and ambition with regard to promoting the teaching of modern languages in schools with reference to the analysis and benefit, the ambition evident in the enthusiasm of the report, and the Government’s commitment in light of its recommendations.
3. It would be difficult not to welcome the radical, ambitious and challenging agenda being set by the Scottish Government in developing modern language education in Scottish schools. The aim is to empower and enable the development of skills and characteristics necessary for success in a fast changing world.
4. The EIS also welcomes the commitment to developing local strategy as a basis for promoting a practical focus on what needs to be done. The political will to lead and invest will be critical to any degree of success in ensuring development, continuity and sustainability, as will be lessons learned from previous initiatives such as MLPS.
The Present Context
5. However, we need to remain practical where key issues raised by teachers need to be addressed: timetabling, flexibility, time, and curricular overload given the context of change, and the growing list of priorities across the curriculum. It can be difficult to square the ambition with the recent developments e.g. the abandonment of FLA’s in schools, the reduction and, in many cases, the removal of nursery teachers from pre-5 education including nursery schools and nursery classes in primary schools, and the present danger of unprecedented budget cuts.
6. The long-term benefits of early introduction to other languages may be disputed in some quarters. However, there is a strong consensus that early exposure is extremely important in establishing a base understanding and boosting motivation. This is regardless of the function or desired outcome of learning a language: to increase awareness of other cultures, to promote a deeper understanding of languages in general; or promote linguistic skills in a particular language. Clearly, the role of the teacher is paramount here and consistent with the aims of Curriculum for Excellence 3-18.
7. However, despite the oft-quoted social and cultural obstacles to the promotion of language learning in English-speaking countries, it is clear that failure is neither inevitable nor, it may be added, an option, in a modern, globalised economy with the patterns of migration that Scotland is witnessing, and will continue to experience in years to come.
8. We acknowledge the good work being undertaken in schools, but much has to be done to ensure coverage, continuity and sustainability. We need to ensure a critical mass of provision, including skilled teachers, who can overcome the known obstacles: the postcode lottery phenomenon; the natural occurrence of absence and supply issues; and ensure a range and diversity of provision which ensures access for all especially in relation to equality legislation. The only caveat, of course, is that equality of provision does not necessarily equate to uniformity of provision.
Migration and Diversity
9. This migration can be multi-faceted. It can present a balance of opportunities and challenges. There are significant opportunities in positive, dynamic and culturally rewarding scenarios where we witness ethnic and linguistic diversity in our workplaces and communities as a result of economic success. This can be seen as a result of investment from international companies and the cultural and linguistic diversity this brings.
10. Yet there are also the consequences of political change and the opening of borders which present opportunities for migrant workers. This can present significantly different opportunities and challenges that have to be faced within our schools and communities. This is where the context is not determined by economic success, but poverty and deprivation, and the consequent social and economic challenges that may arise. These demand specific attention and assessment in terms of support and intervention in order to meet the challenges presented and the opportunities provided. There is a growing awareness of these challenges. A policy for the teaching of languages should also address this discrepancy.
11. In these circumstances, due attention should be paid to multi-agency working and exploring additional revenue streams, including any available additional EEC funding.
12. In this regard, the EIS welcomes an approach to language learning in line with Scotland’s development as a diverse, multicultural and multilingual nation.
The Role of the Teacher
13. The EIS would underline the central role that the teachers play. Teachers bring specific skills and qualifications not only in terms of linguistic skills but also methodology in respect of learning and teaching. This is important with reference to developing initial teacher education but also career-long professional learning and development.
14. The EIS would stress the expert role of the teacher from 3-18 consistent with the aims of Curriculum for Excellence.
15. The EIS would underline the need to consider what would be necessary as part of a national recruitment and professional development strategy which focused on the need to build both general capacity and expanded specialisms in primary - whether primary qualified teachers or secondary qualified, or both. The role of the universities, but also GTCS, via professional registration and professional recognition, in developing and promoting linguistic competence and language teaching methodology would be critical.
16. The EIS notes the appeal to imaginative, creative and goodwill solutions in the form of British Council support, parents, and other skilled and trained native speakers of additional languages, including foreign language assistants. (The recent demise of the latter across local authorities in Scotland has been a significant setback and points to the lack of priority in the area of languages and perhaps, more so, the reality and challenge of local authority funding cuts.)
17. British Council and Comenius projects, for example, have been key to supporting language initiatives, new approaches and promoting teacher engagement in recent times, but these interventions would not be in any way sufficient to deliver and sustain a programme of the kind envisioned by the policy.
- Is there enough funding for the Scottish Government's proposal (including use of EU money)? (The money earmarked by the Scottish Government is £120k for the pilot projects, and £4M for after the pilots in 2013-14).
18. We are not aware of any audit that has been undertaken in this regard. However, it would appear that given the ambition and challenge of the policy, it would not appear that this amount of money would be in any way sufficient to deliver a sustainable, coherent, and quality language policy as outlined. A Government led commitment which underscored the political will to succeed, with funding mechanisms that incentivised, or obliged, local authorities to prioritise a national language strategy based on teacher and pupil motivation and engagement is, however, necessary if here is the determination to succeed. Ring-fencing would need to be an option to be considered here.
- Do existing teachers have the skills and teaching resources available for language tuition? Are existing teachers and teaching assistants equipped to teach languages?
19. There are currently insufficient numbers of trained teachers equipped to deliver languages which would match the ambition of this policy.
- Should there be more training and support for new and existing teachers for language teaching?
20. Yes. Some have MLPS training from years ago but many no longer use it, especially where they may have a visiting specialist in the authority. We have no figures but many teachers trained in MLPS have now retired or will do so in the near future. From the SCILT 2012 survey referenced below, and from anecdotal experience, it seems that primary teachers are already struggling to fit in the current curriculum demands – and 1+2 may yet be another thing to shoehorn in. There is a need to examine and investigate the successes and limitations of the Modern Languages in Primary Schools project which has been in existence for many years and is ongoing, and most recently addressed in the SCILT Survey of Modern Languages Provision 2012.
- What is the capacity within the curriculum to accommodate greater language study? Can language learning be embedded in existing teaching?
21. There would be the need for significant training, upskilling and refresher training. The big question is how and when this would take place, and where would the money and time come from. The present supply crisis in Scottish schools perhaps only underlines the scale of the challenge in terms of taking forward this challenging and ambitious policy.
22. Language teaching can be embedded in existing teaching but teachers will only do this if they if they have the time and training to do so. Even then, the previous MLPS training where certain trained teachers moved round their own school delivering MLPS did not really work as it often took them away from their own classes, and involved increased workload for them. A preferred model may be to have class teachers trained to embed it in their own teaching but this would require every, or the vast majority of teachers, to be trained.
23. However, a more blended, flexible and tiered approach may be possible where there exists a balance of specialist teachers and external support along with teachers with a level of skills and knowledge which would allow for the language(s) to be reinforced in addition to the specialist input on a cluster and /or visiting model. Here, again, the application of GTCS professional recognition in the context of career-long professional development may be useful but this would, of course, need further consideration and discussion.
24. This could be done through CPD but this would take time and commitment on the part of the teachers, and significant investment by local authorities. And who would undertake the training? Will this be done centrally or locally? It also raises issues of consistency and parity of access.
25. There is talk of changing the teacher training course to make the language component, which is currently optional, compulsory. Even if that were desirable or achievable, what happens when graduates leave and go to a school that doesn’t teach the language in which they trained?
- The choice of languages for teaching - which languages should children be learning and why?
26. There appears to be an uncertainty in this area. The EIS would support access to modern languages as earliest as possible and that access be available on a comprehensive and universal basis. However, the needs of schools, communities and individuals are not always the same and there does have to be flexibility – equality of provision does not necessarily mean uniformity of provision.
27. Indeed, a language policy must extend beyond school but there appears to be less provision and access to languages in further and higher education.
28. Discussion needs to take place between authorities/primaries and secondaries to establish the choice of languages. The talk is all a bit woolly about linking languages to the community which would also include community languages, Polish, Urdu etc. and there is also a current fashion of promoting Mandarin, as there was with Russia in the past.
29. Despite this, there remains a strong argument for maintaining a focus on European languages, including French. This would not be inconsistent with focussing on introducing emerging world languages, especially Spanish which has the benefit of accessibility over Mandarin and Russian. And why not Portugese?
30. The fact remains that we are likely to depend on the existing significant capacity in French in taking forward this policy. Indeed, this may be the single unifying first modern language influence after which a second language may be introduced. We would be willing to be convinced otherwise.
31. There needs to be an understanding of the reason for language learning and a realistic approach to what can be achieved through primary and secondary.
- Linguistic competence needs progress and development with differentiated courses and clear pathways to fluency and excellence.
- An increase in language awareness is a helpful personal and educational achievement which can promote self-esteem and an awareness of one’s own native language.
- Exposure to different languages, albeit superficial, can add to cultural awareness and understanding.
32. These can be pursued in combined and different ways but the rigour, commitment and resources necessary for developing linguistic competence itself does raise issues of choice, opportunity, and differentiation – not everyone will become uniformly fluent in a modern language.
33. The need for clarity is a prerequisite for ensuring the credibility, but also value for the significant monies that would have to be invested in this policy and for ensuring sustainability of the overall project.
34. There is certainly a need for clarity and momentum if this policy has any hope of success. At the moment secondary schools are struggling to keep their languages going, many losing their second or third languages as language is increasingly not seen as part of the core subjects. Pupils are being allowed to drop it in 2 nd or 3rd year.
35. There has been a gradual and significant drop in the uptake of languages since the Mulgrew Report in 2000 which promoted languages as a curricular entitlement rather than a core, compulsory element. This led to an increasing number of schools dropping ML’s from the core leading to falling presentation and a concentration on fewer languages, including a move to French often only in order to solve transition issues, and the fact that most language teachers were qualified in French.
36. There is a need to address slippage in schools where language teaching has been marginalised. The pilots would help to point the way forward as would an audit of existing good practice.
37. There is a need to exploit existing potential and identify latent capacity among teachers who may not be exercising dual qualification or existing language qualifications and experience.
THE WAY FORWARD
38. The EIS hopes that, notwithstanding the radical, challenging and ambitious nature of the policy, at least the damage being presently done can be reversed. A modest and successful practice is better than no policy at all. Despite the consensus around the aims and objectives of this policy, there has to be clarity in terms of how this agenda may be realized in the medium to longer term.
39. The following is a minimum:
- The need for leadership and commitment from above and at all levels, including all Head Teachers.
- Effective professional development at all stages
- Professional dialogue and moderation
- Access for teachers and pupils to native speakers e.g foreign language assistants who themselves need to be skilled and trained
- GTCS promotion and development of professional standards in language teaching and to encourage qualifications, accreditation, professional recognition etc.
- Partnership working and sharing of good practice especially re CfE
- Development of resources
- Highlight the importance of language policy in promoting social cohesion, especially given the challenges and opportunities evident in the increase of a migrant and increasingly mobile population especially to and from within Europe.
40. The need to engage teachers at an early stage is crucial. Given the challenges that teachers face re. pensions, pay, conditions, cuts, class sizes, pace of curricular change, narrowing of cpd budgets and opportunities – from where will the powerful gesture come in order to enthuse and engage classroom teachers, in order to win hearts and minds, without whom this strategy could not possibly work? One way would be to acknowledge the key role of the teacher and make a commitment to invest in staff and value them in order to build confidence and capacity. Teachers are more likely to respond to such an opportunity.
41. There appears to be a clear idea about the direction of travel and what is necessary to take matters forward, but less clarity about specifics and how this will be realised in present circumstances. There is a lot to be discussed and considered, and a greater degree of honest accounting needed if policy is to be communicated, developed and delivered across all schools in all local authorities.
6th Meeting, 2013 (Session 4), Thursday 21 March 2013
Submission from the National Union of Students (NUS) Scotland
NUS Scotland welcomes the Scottish Government’s proposals to enable all young people to learn two languages, in addition to their mother tongue. NUS Scotland believes that language skills are a huge advantage for students, and that supporting more individuals to acquire these skills would bring significant benefits for our society and for Scotland’s economy. NUS Scotland has had the privilege of working for a number of years now in the field of internationalising education, through our Scottish Government-funded projects, and this evidence is based on much of that work, and in particular, the findings of our research report Developing Scotland’s Graduates for the Global Economy: From Here to Where?128
NUS Scotland believes that learning additional languages is hugely beneficial in itself in broadening horizons, building skills and confidence, and opening up opportunities for individuals. However, we also know from our own research that language skills are increasingly sought after by UK employers when it comes to graduate recruitment. The decline in language learning is holding back both young people and Scotland as a whole. In the CBI’s 2010 survey of employer satisfaction with the skills of graduates and school-leavers, foreign language ability ranked last out of twelve skills areas and within the UK over two-thirds of employers were not satisfied with the language skills of young people.129
In the UK, studying languages at university has been shown to lead to higher than average employment prospects: three and a half years after graduation, more languages graduates are in work or study than their peers who studied Law, Architecture, Business or Computer Science, and earning high average wages and this evidence is echoed by a number of US and UK studies suggesting that meaningful wage premiums are enjoyed by those with language abilities.130 With both graduate unemployment and underemployment in Scotland at worrying levels, it has never been more pressing for students to enhance their employability, and pressures on graduates to ‘stand out from the crowd’ have never been greater.
At present, Scotland lags behind much of the rest of Europe in terms of language skills and this skills shortage does need to be addressed. We firmly believe that by enabling all young people to learn at least two languages early on, we can help make Scottish college and university graduates more employable and support Scotland to emerge stronger in the global economy from the current downturn. Former Treasury economic adviser, James Foreman-Peck, who has calculated the effects of what he calls the ‘tax on trade’ represented by British relative underinvestment in languages has estimated that this currently equates to at least £7.3 billion, or 0.5% GDP.131
However, we also believe that we need to go beyond increasing language learning in primary schools and ensure greater access to, and uptake of, language study later on in education. Our research has shown that a lack of language skills can be a barrier to both studying and working abroad, both of which are incredibly valuable experiences which increase individuals’ confidence and employability. Students who are currently beyond primary school age could therefore benefit from an increased number of opportunities to study languages. Providing the opportunity for all young people to learn languages from primary school will also help to create a more level playing field for young people from all backgrounds to access the opportunities that knowledge of additional languages can provide.
In line with the main focus of NUS Scotland’s work on this topic, this evidence will look specifically at the role of languages in economic development, and the benefits of language skills to the future careers of Scotland’s young people and the future economic success of Scotland.
The overarching objectives of NUS Scotland’s Developing Scotland’s Global Citizens project, which began in September 2011, are to increase student outward mobility opportunities and encourage greater uptake of study-abroad programmes by Scottish students. Given the increased competition for fewer graduate vacancies, there has been an increased interest in the education sector in the role international experience may play in the employability of students. This is reflected in the widespread support NUS Scotland has received from across the sector, including from the British Council, the Higher Education Academy (HEA), Universities Scotland, Scotland’s Colleges, sparqs, the Scottish Funding Council, the Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) and Young Scot, with IBM and Scottish Development International (SDI) on the project steering group. The project has four strategic themes: raising the profile of European mobility opportunities; fostering graduate attributes through mobility; supporting the international learning experience at institutional level; and, encouraging a partnership approach across the Scottish educational sector.
The project is currently working in Scottish schools and universities to deliver new training on study-abroad opportunities which was developed in conjunction with the Scottish European Educational Trust (SEET). The training module can be delivered by teachers, university staff, or one of our ‘Scotland Goes Global Ambassadors’. Scotland Goes Global Ambassadors are students who have experienced study-abroad opportunities, and the training is designed to open students’ minds to the diversity of their local communities, the benefits of studying abroad, and the opportunities which might be available to them. We believe giving young people a global outlook at an early age is really important to their future success and that increasing language learning earlier on in schooling will be an important part of this.
As part of the Developing Scotland’s Global Citizens project, this academic year we have also launched our Scotland Goes Global initiative, the year of study abroad. Employer and sector engagement, a key part of our project work, has allowed us to gain an insight into the important role of language learning as well as international experiences in Scotland’s economic development.
Uptake of language learning
NUS Scotland’s work with students, academic staff and Scottish-based employers as part of the Scottish Government-funded Developing Scotland’s Global Citizens project has highlighted the severe lack of linguistic ability among Scottish graduates compared to their bilingual and trilingual European counterparts. At the same time there is considerable evidence of the benefits of language skills for Scottish graduates and the Scottish labour force more widely.
As shown in Figure 1 below, currently the number of school students taking French and German at Standard Grade is falling and this coincides with the decreasing popularity of language learning in universities.132 The introduction of Curriculum for Excellence supports increased engagement in language learning and international opportunities, but this has not yet brought about an increase in the numbers of pupils choosing to learn languages.
Table 1: SCLIT (2010)
Increasing language learning in primary schools will increase the opportunities available to students to continue language learning later in their school career and increase their confidence in language learning, both of which could help to boost uptake of languages in secondary and tertiary education. However, we also believe that colleges and universities could increase the range and number of opportunities available to students to learn languages or incorporate language learning into their studies.
Languages and studying abroad
Our research has highlighted that an absence of language skills can be a key barrier preventing students from taking advantage of study abroad opportunities while at college or university, meaning students may miss out on what are extremely valuable experiences for both personal development and improving employability. This language barrier may be a key factor in the comparatively low numbers of Scottish students taking advantage of mobility opportunities.
Despite the fact that Scotland sends a higher percentage of students on Erasmus placements than the rest of the UK, more needs to be done to support Scottish graduates’ employability in an increasingly globalised labour market. In terms of both language ability and study abroad experience, Scottish students remain at a disadvantage to their bilingual and trilingual European counterparts. For example, over 30% of German students (24,029) undertook a part of their study abroad in 2009/10 and these figures are expected to rise with a target of 50% set by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). Taken in the wider context, during the academic year 2009/10, 32 countries took part in the Erasmus programme (the 27 EU Member States, Croatia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Turkey). Only two of these countries – Croatia and Romania – had fewer Erasmus students in proportion to their overall graduate numbers in 2009 than the UK.133 Last year witnessed an 8% increase in Scottish Erasmus study abroad figures amongst students studying at Scottish HEIs (1,243 students in 2010/11 compared to 1,148 students in 2009/10).134 While this increase is welcome it still means that less than 1% of students in Scotland undertake Erasmus study.
Furthermore, the actual number of Scottish students that study abroad (as opposed to students in Scotland) may well be fewer still. While last year’s figures are not yet available from the University of Edinburgh, between 2005/6 and 2007/8 non-Scottish students made up 82% of their total Erasmus student figures. At the University of St. Andrews, non-Scottish students made up 69% of all outgoing Erasmus students in 2010/11 and 67% in the previous academic year. At Heriot-Watt University, non-Scottish students made up 40% of all outgoing Erasmus students in 2010/11 and 43% in 2009/10.
A larger-scale study needs to be undertaken before we can properly assess this issue as the student demographic is considerably different depending on the institution, but out of a total of 1,243 students studying in Scotland who went on Erasmus last year, we can safely say that a significant majority of these were not Scottish but students from the rest of the UK (RUK students) and EU students competent in languages other than their mother tongue.135
The main reasons for low student study abroad uptake are well documented and the most recent research findings, by the British Council and YouGov, illustrate the barriers to undertaking international experiences. The second most common response to the students being asked why they had never worked, lived or learnt abroad was that they felt their foreign language skills were not good enough.136 This is something commonly echoed by secondary school students in Scotland when asked by our Global Ambassadors why they might not choose to study abroad. Increasing language learning in primary schools could therefore have a beneficial impact on access to these opportunities by boosting the language skills of all young people in Scotland.
Languages, study abroad and employability
Missing out on study abroad opportunities due to concerns around language skills may be damaging to the future employability of Scotland’s young people and students. Within the UK, there are clear signs that employers are keen to recruit graduates with study-abroad experience: a report from the Confederation of British Industry (CBI) in 2010 found that 55% of employers warned of ‘shortfalls’ in British students’ international cultural awareness.137 In a recent British Council/Think Global survey, 75% of surveyed chief executives and board level directors of businesses in the UK think we are in danger of being left behind by emerging countries unless young people learn to think more globally, and 74% are worried that many young people's horizons are not broad enough to operate in a globalised and multicultural economy.138 This is symptomatic of the fact that despite attracting very high numbers of international students to Scotland, the process is far from reciprocal.
Equally, students are increasingly seeing value and benefit to the notion of employability, and how it can help to distinguish them within the graduate labour market. Some argue that we are seeing the emergence of an ‘economy of experience’139, centred on students increasingly attempting to make themselves stand out in an ever more competitive field of graduates with similar degrees and results, borne out by the expansion of higher education over the past decade. Despite this, Scottish students remain far less mobile than their European counterparts with lack of languages being a significant deterrent.
NUS Scotland believes there is a clearly identified need to increase awareness, availability and uptake of language learning as part of a quality primary, secondary and tertiary education. Increasing language learning in primary school will support more young people to study languages later in education and can also form part of creating a more global outlook for all of Scotland’s young people. We also believe that language learning later in education should be supported and encouraged and increased opportunities should be available to study languages or while at college or university.
We believe that increasing language learning will enhance the employability of young people by equipping them with the skills to compete in an increasingly globalising economy and society. Greater language skills will also help to remove a key barrier which is currently preventing young people in Scotland from taking advantage of opportunities abroad during their time in education.
We believe it’s important that Scotland’s young people know about the international opportunities that are open to them, and waiting until students enter the doors of a university or college, for many, is leaving it too late. We hope that Curriculum for Excellence will help to create a more international outlook for young people and we believe the experiences of our Scotland Goes Global Ambassadors will help to inspire secondary school students to explore language learning and study abroad opportunities as they choose their future education and careers.
We believe language skills have a crucial role to play in Scotland’s future in economic development, a point made clear recently by Jane Gotts, International Director at SCDI, when speaking recently about our Scotland Goes Global initiative:
“Building a sustainable world economy depends on how we support the next generation of global leaders. Scotland must adopt a global outlook and encourage Scottish students and graduates to ‘think globally, act locally’.The ‘Scotland Goes Global’ initiative is fundamental in helping Scotland compete in a global marketplace alongside playing a crucial role in helping Scotland build its international reputation for excellence”.
Submission from the Federation of Small Businesses (FSB) Scotland
The FSB is Scotland’s largest direct-member business organisation, representing around 20,000 members. The FSB campaigns for an economic and social environment which allows small businesses to grow and prosper.
As outlined in discussions with committee officials, FSB Scotland has not previously undertaken any detailed work on this issue. We have therefore limited our response to the role of languages in economic development, specifically with regard to small businesses. In the context of ever greater economic globalisation and the growth of the BRIC nations, the acquisition of language skills in the workforce will continue to be relevant for Scotland to compete in the global market. The key questions, then, are:
1. To what extent are languages a barrier to trade for FSB members?
2. To what extent are language skills important for FSB members?
With the limited evidence at our disposal, our research140 suggests that the main barrier to trade for UK members (74%) is the lack of suitable product/service to export. Indeed, only 5% of members cite language/cultural barriers as a reason for not exporting.
Moreover, when asked about the main challenges small businesses needed to overcome when exporting goods and services, only 15% cited language/cultural barriers. The top four challenges were:
- Fluctuating exchange rate/foreign currency (35%)
- Difficulty in finding customers (24%)
- Lack of finance/working capital (23%)
- Difficulties around getting paid (22%)
These statistics can be partly explained by the fact that three of the top five countries businesses expect to export goods and services to in the future are English speaking nations. However, it is clear that for many of our UK members language skills are not currently considered a significant barrier to trade.
Indeed, while we broadly agree that there is an economic case for improved language skills, our evidence suggests that these are not currently priorities for most small businesses considering exporting. The most frequently cited skills problems for small businesses141 are: sales/marketing/PR (46% for business owners and 34% for employees); IT (27% for both business owners and employees); and ‘softer’, interpersonal skills (32% regard customer service as integral to business growth).
On a slightly related matter, we also sought feedback from tourism businesses in relation to language teaching. Most agreed that language skills would be an advantage to any tourism business. However, a far greater priority was considered to be a local workforce with stronger interpersonal and customer service skills. This, rather than language skills, was felt to be the greatest challenge to workforce skills which would enable businesses to make the customer journey more authentic.
Submission from the Confederation of British Industry (CBI) Scotland
(Excerpt from CBI Scotland Education and Skills Survey142)
12. Communication means business
7th Meeting, 2013 (Session 4), Thursday 18 April 2013
Submission from the Scottish Government
Thank you for your letter of 24 April following up two questions asked by Committee members at the oral evidence session for the above inquiry in which I participated on 18 April. I am replying to provide the supplementary information requested.
Roderick Campbell asked about how work is progressing towards establishing partnerships between local authorities and universities as a means of enhancing the early phase of teacher training, and how this work will feed into the languages 1+2 agenda.
The Scottish Government has established the National Implementation Board (NIB), chaired by Petra Wend, Principal and Vice-Convener of Queen Margaret University, to oversee the implementation of recommendations of Teaching Scotland's Future and the National Partnership Group. This includes overseeing the establishment of partnerships between local authorities and universities to enhance the early phase of teacher education.
Work is underway in relation to this agenda and partnerships are due to be in place across Scotland by August 2013. Establishing effective partnerships between universities and local authorities is a challenging area of work. Some authorities and universities are making good progress while others have further to go in developing their thinking and moving towards an effective partnership. The NIB is aware of this and will discuss and agree a package of measures at its next meeting, in late May, that will help to move this work forward.
While the development of early phase partnerships will not make a direct contribution to the languages agenda, an enhanced early phase of teacher education will increase the quality of all teachers entering the profession in Scotland, no matter the subject or the sector in which they will teach. It will also help to set the stage for improved ongoing professional development, which will be vital to support the languages agenda.
Willie Coffey asked for information on the number of STEM subject graduates who also have a language qualification.
Unfortunately, this information is not readily available at this time, would prove difficult to obtain and has various complexities associated with it. Some students will have earned qualifications at school before entering into a STEM course in further or higher education. Some students will, as part of a university or college course, study a language which contributes to the overall qualification rather than leading to a specific stand-alone language qualification.
Whilst I am not in a position to provide the information requested, I thank the Committee member for drawing attention to this interesting and relevant aspect of our aspiration on languages. We want to encourage learners to consider continuing or embarking on language study at any stage of education, even if the main emphasis of their studies lies elsewhere. This applies to STEM subjects but is also relevant in many other areas of study and learning in higher and further education.
Alasdair Allan MSP, Minister for Learning, Science and Scotland’s Languages
Annexe C – Other written evidence
Submission from Association of Teachers and Lecturers (ATL) Scotland
Submission from Lisa Bayliss, Keith Grammar School
Submission from J.A. MacKay, Ceannard (CEO), Bòrd na Gàidhlig
Submission from Mary MacMillan, Leasaiche Foghlam (Head of Education), Bòrd na Gàidhlig
Submission from Children in Scotland
Submission from the Consulate General of Japan
Submission from Valerie Cox
Submission from Lauren Corbett, Lathallan School
Submission from Professor Robert Dunbar
Submission from Falkirk Council
Submission from Fèisean nan Gàidheal
Submission from Isabelle Gall, Carnoustie High School
Submission from Kirsten Herbst-Gray
Written submission from the Institut français d’Ecosse (French Institute in Scotland)
Submission from Japan Foundation
Submission by JETAA Scotland
Submission from Jérôme Lestienne, Elgin Academy
Submission from Trevor Lord
Submission from Hilary McColl
Submission from Mr Hugh R McMahon
Submission by Dr John Moore
Submission from John Morton
Submission from North Ayrshire Council
Submission from Rachel O’Neill, University of Edinburgh
Submission from the Scottish Council of Independent Schools (SCIS)
Submission by the Scottish Esperanto Education Group
Submission from St George’s School for Girls
Submission from the Scotland-Russia Forum
Submission from Udo Seiwert-Fauti, European Media (Scotland- Strasbourg)
Submission from Elizabeth Tobon
Submission from Niall P Tracey
Submission from UK National Commission for UNESCO Scotland Committee
Submission from Jamie Wallace
Submission from West Lothian Council
Annexe D – Reports of visits to schools
Visit to Dalmarnock Primary School, Glasgow, 14 December 2012 – background provided by head teacher
Dalmarnock Primary is a new build that was formed by 4 smaller schools amalgamating in 2007. Our catchment area covers a large section of the east end of Glasgow.
Shortly after the school opened it was announced that the 2014 Commonwealth Games would be held in Glasgow. Our school is perfectly situated for this as we are next to the new velodrome and National Sports Arena. The athletes’ village will become part of our catchment once they leave and it is turned into social housing. With this information we decided that a priority for us would be to include an international dimension into our curriculum.
The school quickly developed good working links with a small school in Greece. Much of this work was done through the eyes of toys that we exchanged. From this other links grew but we decided that to give every child the opportunity to participate in a project we would apply for a Comenius grant.
Our application was successful and we worked for 2 years with schools in Spain, Italy, Poland and, our original friends, in Greece. The context for this work was The Sea. This started our interest in languages particularly as our Spanish friends couldn’t speak Spanish but another language that the children had never heard of, Catalan. By displaying signs in all the languages children quickly noticed that some words in English, Catalan and Italian were similar and they enjoyed seeing links between Greek and English in letter shapes and names.
At the end of the two year project we began a second Comenius with 2 of the same partners although we worked with a new school in Spain and one in Turkey. This has allowed us to explore other languages and further develop our skills in Italian. This year we have had support from a specialist teacher of Italian who has worked with P7 children.
As part of our transition programme with our local secondary children are taught French from P5 onwards and this has been standard practice for many years. The current practice in Glasgow is that children learn a foreign language from at least primary 5 (not precluding an earlier a start!) We have 2 teachers trained to deliver this work. Many of our children apply for placing requests to the local denominational secondary where the language taught in first year is Italian. By introducing a class in P7 it allows children to grasp the basics of the language before moving on.
Last year the nursery we share a building with asked Glasgow City Council for support in teaching Spanish to their children so 2 of the school staff joined this training with a view to making it a transition programme. We have been fortunate to have the support of a Spanish teacher this session to help us embed this in our P1 and P2 curriculum. Staff work alongside her as further CPD. In the summer term the P1 children will host a Spanish Fiesta for the children in the nursery.
This year we have introduced a block of time on the timetable known as Masterclass. Children work in mixed age groups on a subject that they have chosen. This term I took a Greek class for P2 – 4 children. We learned some basic vocabulary e.g. greetings, colours, numbers, food etc. We talked about the culture and customs of the Greek people and I told them some of the classic stories from Greek mythology. This class will run again after Christmas with new children.
This session we have been fortunate to secure the services of a native Russian speaking teacher who provides lessons after school in Russian language and culture. Although numbers in the class are small the children are very enthusiastic.
I hope this gives you a little knowledge of the background of the school and the stages of our journey so far. We look forward to meeting you all in December and sharing our learning with you.
Head teacher, Dalmarnock Primary School
Visit to St Elizabeth Primary School, Hamilton, 25 January 2013
Project Manager and School Management Team – Comments
Half of the staff were trained in Spanish at the time of the visit, including the headteacher and depute. Three teachers were participating in Spanish training, and those who were not trained were two probationers, one temporary teacher and two job sharers.
St Elizabeth pupils and teachers use the tools on Glow. The school has a Glow Group set up where pupils can post questions and comments to Le Français en Ecosse (LFEE).
P7 have twinned with a Barcelona school and P7 pupils are writing letters to their twin school and receiving replies. The topic of the letters is the difference in cultures such as comparing ways that they celebrate Christmas etc. It was suggested later that each class could twin with their opposite number at the same Barcelona school and, in time, potentially each child could have their own twin.
The Committee members discussed the possibility of utilising parents and foreign students who can speak another language as a way to learn a third language. St Elizabeth’s also runs an after school language club to learn Spanish.
University students from other countries – regardless of what they are studying – could be given the chance to get involved with primary school language clubs.
During discussion it was suggested that more EU shadow teachers could come to Scotland.
Spanish is currently the only foreign language being used in St Elizabeth's and staff are working to employ the immersion approach and use Spanish everyday as and when they can. There has been a clear shift away from staff teaching Spanish as a discreet subject since they began working collaboratively with LFEE for the pilot project.
Parents and Teachers
The teacher for P1 and two other teachers were coming close to the end of their training in February 2013. The training course consists of 20 weeks of intensive training.
The Scottish Government’s Working Group’s 1+2 Report recommends that the second foreign language to be taught under the Scottish Government’s proposal will not come in until P5 and will not be taught to the same level as the first, and so the school’s plans will be based on these recommendations.
Parents were very positive about their children’s progress in Spanish and were interested to know how they could help.
It was suggested that:-
sets of sound bites and basic words could be given out to children to put up at home so their parents could take part when their children speak Spanish at home;
Teachers should share ideas with other schools and other language teachers;
The children think it is a good idea for their parents to learn by using Glow at home;
The language teacher is working with the Development Officer for Technology at the Council;
Parents think it is important to keep the academic side out of the lessons at the P3 stage, there should be no exams and the lessons should remain fun and the language conversational;
St Elizabeth’s has Spanish playground games painted on the ground in the playground for children to practise their numbers and colours. These games have been there for several years.
Teachers commented that children were generally on a level playing field when learning Spanish and less academic pupils were not so inhibited because when new vocabulary was taught, all pupils were more or less at the same level.
Visits to classes
During the visits to classes, there was evidence of Spanish used to teach numbers in Maths. Many teachers are using Spanish throughout the day to order children's lunches, do the register, say prayers, count and use colour in art.
We visited several classes and watched different methods and levels of learning e.g.
P2/3 – Composite class – counting and playing Bingo in Spanish; meeting and greeting each other at different times of the day in Spanish; basic Spanish conversation; identifying simple pictures in Spanish. Some of these activities were done to music.
P5/6 Composite class - Again this class were working on exercises in numbers and conversation. They also used clapping to count syllables and sang Spanish numbers and words to the tune of an English nursery rhyme. Their teacher explained that these methods are used for almost every subject and they worked as well for Spanish as they did for memorising arithmetical tables etc.
P7 –This class worked on Spanish numeracy at a higher level than the others and showed us the letters they had written to their twin school in Barcelona.
The day finished with a demonstration of Salsa dancing by the Spanish teacher and the Convener but they were out-done by the children singing Twinkle Twinkle Little Star in Spanish. A good time was had by all.
European and External Relations Committee clerking team
Visits to Balmerino and Leuchars Primary Schools, Fife, 18 February 2013
- One of the schools began its language training in nursery (French). This primarily took the form of songs and games and reading stories. There was a general agreement that children were less self-conscious at this age and content to join in.
Role of parents/family
- The parents in Leuchars primary school were supportive on the learning of languages. They were content to assist the children in the evenings and applauded the enthusiasm which had been created in their children.
- In some cases the children were encouraged to use their language (e.g. when visiting takeaway shops).
- There was all a trickle down between siblings with the elder often teaching/enthusing the younger child
- The arrangement of schools into language clusters (in the case of Fife, German and French) ensures a continuity of learning between primary and secondary.
- Parents were generally satisfied with this arrangement although reservations were expressed about the limits it places upon the languages learned (Spanish was a notable absence from the curriculum).
The role of language assistants
- Both the schools visited shared a Mandarin language teacher. The resource was appreciated although there was a recognition that the teacher would be available only for short instalments.
Mainstreaming the language
- In both schools foreign language was mainstreamed into other lessons, often in the form of dates and time in jotters, instructions given (including PE), history/culture.
The role of the internet
- The internet was seen as a vital resource for the teaching of children.
- GLOW the Scottish Government supported intranet system was not warmly applauded. There was a general consensus that similar or better material could be found elsewhere, without the added imposition of firewalls.
- Parents were supportive of the use of the internet for home learning in supervised activity time.
Language v culture (Mandarin)
- In the teaching of Mandarin focus was placed upon the learning of culture/history and how that would inform songs and the retention of certain pictograms.
- In the lower classes much was made of games and songs
- In the upper classes, the pupils were able to hold short conversations
European and External Relations Committee clerks
Visit to Darvel and Kilmaurs Primary Schools, Ayrshire, 8 March 2013
Darvel Primary School
This school teaches French and we observed a French class for P7 pupils. The teaching consisted of identifying various things on cards in French, following instructions given in French for games, and singing songs in French. The pupils also translated French words which they had not heard before by identifying the same word groups as used in English.
The pupils have 1 hour of French per week and supplement this with small things such as using the calendar in French every day. The teacher also used a DVD called Ed Paks but only had one disc so use of it was limited.
Support at home ranged from nil to the use of a French dictionary and a DVD in French. The parent we spoke to later said that if pupils were given packs to take home containing French pictures and words to put up at home she would be happy to accept and use it.
After the class we met with 6 pupils from the class and a lively discussion on the subject of language learning ensued and raised the following points (these points were not unanimous):
- Before P6, pupils are still learning English and a 2nd foreign language would be too much. Learning your own first language well is more important than a 2nd foreign language;
- They enjoy verbal French and conversation but written French and grammar at this stage is still difficult
- They prefer the French lessons to be fun and informal and not to have the pressure of exams in French at this stage
- They would like to see native French speakers having conversations
- If they want to work in engineering they will need German and/or Italian
- Given a choice of Chinese or Russian as a 2nd foreign language they would choose Chinese. The Chinese economy is getting bigger and Scottish people will not be able to speak Chinese to take advantage of that
- If Scotland becomes independent and is, even temporarily, not a member of the EU, languages other than European languages will be very important to the Scottish economy
- French P7 children speak English a lot better than we speak French
- The Higher Education system would not include another language unless we needed it for work and then we would choose the appropriate language at that time.
- The French teacher has a degree in Modern Languages
- That teacher would prefer to go for 1+1 to to start with to maintain the quality of the language education
- Teaching the same language all the way through would help when teachers are absent or moving from one school to another
- Teacher training would require a Higher Plus achievement in a language to be able to teach that language
- The choice of languages at Secondary School is getting narrower and will impact on transition
- Funding might be channelled to people who have a natural apptitude for languages to take the 2nd one
- If the language education is to be properly embedded in the curriculum almost all teachers would need to be trained
- The Scottish Government’s report mentions teachers achieving the highest possible standard of spoken language and that is not possible
- We would need to double the number of language teachers at Secondary Schools to maintain 2 languages
- It would be better to do one language really well
- The curriculum is full and other subjects would be diluted to include languages
- The teacher’s choice would be either not to start the 2nd foreign language in primary school at all, or at least only in upper primary and then as a taster;
- 1 hour per week is ideal;
- Foreign language assistants were good but the funding for them has been cut.
- Why do foreign languages so often have to be restricted to French or German – can we not widen the choice?
- When this parent lived in Cambridgeshire every term they did a taster of a different language to open the pupils’ minds to other languages and to increase their confidence and this was well received by the pupils.
- The pupils should be using he languages most widely used in the world at this time and that is not French or German.
- In Scandinavian countries children speak English well because they watch TV in English. Scottish children do not get the same opportunity. Cartoons in foreign languages would work very well as a learning resource.
- Children want to know that their learning has a purpose. It also has to be relevant to the world at the moment. How the language is learned is also important.
Kilmaurs Primary School
This school also teaches French and we observed a Primary 3-4 class in their French lesson.
The teaching method was cross-curricular with the lesson taking place partly in the classroom and partly in the gymnasium. In the classroom the lesson covered numbers, days of the week, naming fruits, basic grammar and conversation. In the gymnasium games involving the above were played with the instructions given in French.
We met with 6 pupils who expressed an interest in different languages for different reasons, ranging from Sri Lankan and Japanese to American.
They enjoyed their French lessons and supplemented them with watching TV programmes in foreign languages when they could. The subjects of those TV programmes were mainly cartoons or sport. They would welcome cartoons in French to help them with their French conversation.
- The Teacher has Higher Russian
- Transition to Secondary School was hugely important
- The loss of language assistants due to funding cuts had been a huge loss
- GLOW – should be used for twinning with foreign schools
- Foreign Consulates could be useful in providing education in their countries’ culture
- The teacher was in favour of all new teachers having a language included in their training
Points agreed by both schools
- Many existing teachers have languages they are not using – but having a language and teaching it are two different things and training would still be required to enable them to teach languages
- while the 1+2 was welcomed, it would take careful planning, and a long time to implement if it is to be done properly
- the curriculum is full and they asked what they would take out to make way for a 2nd foreign language
- successful transition of language education to secondary school was hugely important
- the loss of foreign language assistants has been a huge loss
European and External Relations Committee clerking team
Visit to Machanhill Primary School, Larkhall, 11 March 2013
Christina McKelvie, the EER Committee Convener and Clare Adamson took part in this visit. Machanhill Primary school teaches French from Primary 3 upwards.
Christina and Clare held discussions with members of the pupil council and other pupils (ranging from primaries 3 to 7), the head teacher and other teachers at the school.
- Pupils described the games and activities used to learn French at their school – which they enjoyed much more than learning from books or reciting words. They didn’t study the culture of France apart from learning about the different food. They didn’t learn by immersion in other classes - apart from a few instances such as maths where the teacher had sufficient language skills.
- Pupils were very appreciative of their teachers, and especially praised a teacher who was fluent in French as it made the language easier to learn. They described the progression of accumulative learning from Primaries 3 to 7 – starting with learning simple words and progressing to put the words together into sentences.
- The school had had a Foreign Language Assistant for a short period who had been very popular with pupils. Older pupils said they were also motivated competitively by younger pupils learning the language as they didn’t want the younger pupils to be more skilled.
- Extra-curricular language lessons were available but pupils had to pay to access them.
- Machanhill does not participate in the Connecting Classrooms project but the local secondary school, Larkhall Academy does.
- When asked about the Scottish Government’s proposal to learn two languages in primary school, the pupils said they would probably enjoy it but also wondered whether learning two languages rather than one could be more confusing.
- The headteacher thought the best languages to learn were those associated with economic growth – he suggested Spanish, Mandarin and Portuguese.
- When asked about the Scottish Government’s proposed funding for its 2 + 1 language proposals, he thought that the cost would vary widely depending on what the Scottish Government wanted to achieve. For example, if the aim was proficient language skills, the costs would vary hugely compared to lesser language skills.
- Machanhill had no resources from the community who could help with teaching languages, e.g. migrants who might have language skills to offer.
- Most teachers in schools and nurseries were in need of language training - although one teacher in the school was fluent to university level.
- The school had received Comenius programme funds via the British Council which had funded a native French speaker to work in the school. This had been very successful but had only lasted for a year.
- The headteacher supported the proposal to learn more languages but thought that the Scottish Government would need to maintain the momentum to be successful, that it would take some time to work and that there was a cultural barrier to overcome of the current Scottish mind-set that learning another language other than English wasn’t necessary.
European and External Relations Committee Clerks
Visit to Lochyside R C Primary School, Fort William, 18 March 2013
Response to Committee’s inquiry
a) Is there enough money……….? insufficient information to answer the question.
b) Do existing teachers have the skills… ?
We should carry out a national audit to ascertain current position of skills in Modern Languages
Gaelic resources are excellent. They include audio, visual and display materials, are provided as part of the training and are very relevant to CfE methods.
MLPS French: none of the above. School are obliged to buy or make their own resources for use with pupils. Good ideas are now coming from websites (such as Passeporte Francophone) which are suitable for CfE.
There is no formal training in Scots at present. A good range of materials is available commercially for schools to buy and staff make their own resources.
Should there be more training and support ?
These should be on-going for existing teachers, to maintain fluency, confidence and relevance. Training and support would be good for morale. At present some language teachers can feel isolated or that their language is undervalued by colleagues.(NOT in this school!!)
Regular contact with colleagues at ASG level would also help e.g. through an agreed programme of work, ensuring coverage, progression and continuity, particularly at transition stage.
c) What is the capacity within the curriculum to accommodate greater language study? Can it be embedded in existing teaching?
The best way to accommodate extra language study is through CfE, where language work can easily be integrated with cross curricular activities. The Wee Big Books Project was designed with this in mind.
Specific lessons on language teaching will still be required, however .
Organisation within schools would need to be arranged according to individual circumstances i.e. number of trained staff, composite classes, school role etc.
Such a cross curricular approach also requires careful monitoring of progression and coverage.
Which languages should children be learning and why?
I suggest they should be learning Scots and Gaelic because they are our native languages.
Traditionally, French (and German) have been taught, so more staff are readily available to deliver lessons in those languages than in Norwegian or Spanish, for example.
What is the role of languages in economic development?
It facilitates other learning.
Learning additional languages encourages a broad-minded approach to other cultures.
It widens the scope for employment and business, both personally and as a nation.
What should children be learning to help them get jobs, help Scotland flourish economically?
From an economic point of view, at present, perhaps Mandarin might be a good language for children to learn.
Report of school visit
The Wee Big Book Project ( October 2012-December 2013)
The aim of the project is to produce a series of A3 size books, on topics across the curriculum. Teacher Guides will be provided and include suggestions for language work as well as further cross-curricular activities on the theme of the Book.
Scots is taught in all classes. At present, French and Gaelic are taught in p5-7 but by August 2013 this will extend across all stages.
The simple text will be in Scots/French/Gaelic. Text will be written by Mrs Murphy. Translations will be provided by specialists, with input from pupils at Lochaber High School.
Titles to date:
- in French Here is A Seed (Science) , The Banana Book (Fair Trade) , Scotland and Senegal (Geography)
- in Scots The King With 3 Sons (RE).
Other suggested titles are
St Columba, Gaelic Fairy Story
Design, illustrations and publication will be undertaken by Lochyside pupils themselves, under the guidance of the Artist in Residence at Room 13 Art Studio.
A series of Workshops has begun, to enable the pupils to study the technical and artistic features of books. Three have already taken place and two more are planned, with a professional graphic artist and an illustrator.
The generous Funding for this Project has made it possible to involve such expertise.
Following discussions with Miss Smith and Mrs Murphy, Mr McGrigor observed a French lesson with P7 and talked to groups of children about their work in the three target languages. The children shared their opinions readily and were enthusiastic about their experiences.
Mr McGrigor was then introduced to Johnnie Soe-Paing, (MD Lochyside Room 13 aged 10), Ms Claire Gibb and Mr Rob Fairley (Artists in Residence Room 13), who explained their part in the Wee Big Book Project.
Mr McGrigor was presented with a dvd about Room 13 and its work.
Miss Smith and Mrs Murphy thanked Mr McGrigor for his visit and support for the project and extended an invitation to come again.
Lochyside Primary School teachers
Visit to Donibristle Primary School, Dalgety Bay, 25 March 2013
EER Committee member Helen Eadie went on this visit and had discussion with various teachers at the school. Donibristle Primary School teaches French and German at Primary 6 and 7. The school would like to teach languages from nursery level but does not have sufficiently trained teachers to do this.
The main discussion points were:
- The school has a high proportion of teachers trained under the 1990’s MLPS (Modern Languages in the Primary School) initiative in French and German, - although they highlighted that a significant period of time had elapsed since this training. Some teachers are not MLPS trained but teach languages.
Continuity from primary to secondary
- This school has not experienced any problems of transition for children who wish to carry on with their language learning when they move to a secondary school - although they mentioned that the local secondary school may move its emphasis to Spanish which is not taught at Donibristle PS.
- Teachers noted that there is great variation in levels of language skills amongst the primary schools in their cluster that feed into the local secondary school – they found it frustrating that pupils with more advanced knowledge from Donibristle could be held back by those from other schools with lesser abilities.
- The local secondary school had an arrangement to allow a specialist languages secondary teacher to work with Donibristle pupils which all found helpful.
Policy and development
- Teachers stated that their local authority had begun a policy of composite classes to save resources which made the class more challenging to teach.
- Foreign language students had assisted language teachers in previous years which teachers had found to be very beneficial.
- Languages were taught with a level of immersion. For example, Primary 7 had created a French café when studying the topic of food. Teachers thought that the immersion technique was important, more purposeful and effective - but a challenge in an overcrowded curriculum.
- The Donibristle teachers liked a model used in Canada where teachers could take 1 year out in every 5 years to work abroad, learn new skills and travel. Pay was lower overall as 4 years pay was spread over 5 years. However the Donibristle teachers felt this was more than compensated for by the ability to recharge and learn new skills in the year off. They also supported a pilot of introducing Latin in another Scottish school on the basis this would encourage learning of language structure.
Input from community
- Teachers said that parents did not have great input into language classes, but were involved in other types of classes or often helped in promoting cultural events such as Diwali or Chinese New Year.
- There were a wide range of nationalities/ languages represented by the school pupils and their parents including Polish, Russian, Hungarian, Norwegian, Mexican, Urdu and Welsh – as well as Scottish!
- Teachers said that parents often discouraged children from speaking their mother tongue if it was not English, as they believed that speaking English was more important.
1 + 2 model
- Helen discussed the Scottish Government’s 1 + 2 language proposals with the teachers who thought it would have a great impact on what training was provided especially to new teachers. Teachers thought that trained teachers delivering their own language class was a more effective way of language teachers than a peripatetic specialist as permanent teachers would have a better knowledge of their class.
- Teachers thought that knowledge of EU funded opportunities was usually acquired randomly by teachers rather than universally. They were not aware of information from the British Council. One teacher had been on an EU funded visit to France due to the opportunity being highlighted by Le Francais en Ecosse on a teacher training course. She described the application form as difficult, and had given up a week of her holidays to go so that the school did not have the problem of backfilling her post.
European and External Relations Committee Clerks
Annexe E – Reports of conference on 10 May 2013
Report of plenary sessions
Workshop 1: Funding
Workshop 2: Skills and resources
Workshop 3: Importance of languages
Workshop 4: Policy and development
1 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 18 April 2013, Cols 1101 and 1104.
3 Taken from the Scottish Government motion for the 24 May 2012 Scottish Parliament plenary debate.
4 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 18 April 2013, Col 1112.
5 The Scottish Government supports Gaelic Medium Education (GME) through a number of policies and funding streams. Currently GME is available in 21 local authorities. This provision varies from early years up to and including secondary education. All local authorities are eligible to bid into the Gaelic Education Specific Grant to help support Gaelic provision in their area. The Scottish Government also has a Gaelic Schools Capital fund which is open to all local authorities to bid into. For 2010/11, £1.35 million was made available from the Capital fund.
6 The Committee videos are available on the EERC’s website at: http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/parliamentarybusiness/CurrentCommittees/56920.aspx
7 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 18 April 2013, Col 1102.
8 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 18 April 2013, Col 1106.
9 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 18 April 2013, Col 1105.
10 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 21 February 2013, Cols 940 – 943, and Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, break out group reports.
11 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 7 March 2013, Col 994.
12 Scottish Government. (2012) Languages Working Group report, Language Learning in Scotland: A 1 + 2 Approach. Available at: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2012/05/3670/0
13 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 7 March 2013, Col 1021.
14 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, report of visit to Dalmarnock primary school, see Annexe D.
15 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 21 February 2013, Cols 973-4
16 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, transcript of plenary sessions, Col 32, see Annexe E.
17 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 18 April 2013, Col 1102.
18 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 7 March 2013, Col 992.
19 Cosla. Written submission, paragraph 4, and Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 21 February 2013, Col 965.
20 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 18 April 2013, Col 1103.
21 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, break out group 1 report, see Annexe E.
22 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, transcript of plenary sessions, Col 25, and break out group 1 report, see Annexe E.
23 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 10 January 2013, Col 820.
24 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, transcript of plenary sessions, Col 30, see Annexe E.
25 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, transcript of plenary sessions, Col 32, see Annexe E.
26 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 7 February 2013, Col 903.
27 COSLA written submission.
28 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 18 April 2013, Cols 1108-1110.
29 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 18 April 2013, Col 1108.
30 Hub models are intended to provide an effective centre to learning activity in a geographical area.
31 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, break out group 1 report, see Annexe E.
32 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 18 April 2013, Cols 1103-1104.
33 The current European Lifelong Learning Programme with a budget of nearly €7 billion for the 2007-2013 period is made up of four sectoral programmes on school education (Comenius), higher education (Erasmus), vocational training (Leonardo da Vinci) and adult education (Grundtvig). In order to overcome the fragmentation of current instruments the Commission has proposed to create an integrated programme for education, training and youth ('Education Europe'), with a clear focus on developing skills and mobility to begin in 2014.
34 British Council Scotland. Written submission.
35 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, report of visit to Donibristle primary school, see Annexe D.
36 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, report of visit to Donibristle primary school, see Annexe D.
37 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, transcript of plenary sessions, Col 26, see Annexe E.
38 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, break out group 1 report, see Annexe E.
39 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, break out group 1 report, see Annexe E, and Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 21 February 2013, Col 940.
40 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 18 April 2013, Col 1111.
41 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 18 April 2013, Cols 1110 – 1112.
42 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, break out group 2 report, see Annexe E.
43 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, transcript of plenary sessions, Cols 31-33, and break out group 4 report, see Annexe E.
44 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, report of visit to Donibristle primary school, see Annexe E.
45 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, report of visit to Donibristle primary school, see Annexe D.
46 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 18 April 2013, Cols 1117-1118.
47 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 18 April 2013, Col 1117.
48 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 18 April 2013, Col 1118.
49 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 7 March 2013, Col 1002.
50 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 21 February 2013, Col 948.
51 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, break out group 2 report, see Annexe E.
52 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 18 April 2013, Col 1116.
53 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, report of visit to Donibristle primary school, see Annexe D, and Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 7 February 2013, Col 901.
55 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 7 February 2013, Cols 909 – 910.
56 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, break out group 3 report, see Annexe E.
57 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, break out group 3 report, see Annexe E.
58 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 21 February 2013, Cols 950 and 973, and Official Report, 7 March 2013, Cols 998–999.
59 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, break out groups 2 and 3 reports, see Annexe E.
60 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 18 April 2013, Col 1113.
61 Written evidence. National Union of Students Scotland and Confederation of British Industry Scotland.
62 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, break out group 3 report, see Annexe E.
63 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, break out group 3 report, see Annexe E.
64 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 21 March 2013, Col 1050.
65 Written evidence. National Union of Students Scotland. Confederation of British Industry Scotland, Learning to grow: what employers need from education and skills: education and skills survey 2012. Available at: http://www.cbi.org.uk/media/1514978/cbi_education_and_skills_survey_2012.pdf (Submitted to the European and External Relations Committee as written evidence).
66 Confederation of British Industry Scotland, Learning to grow: what employers need from education and skills: education and skills survey 2012. Available at: http://www.cbi.org.uk/media/1514978/cbi_education_and_skills_survey_2012.pdf (Submitted to the European and External Relations Committee as written evidence).
Scottish Government. (2012) Languages Working Group report, Language Learning in Scotland: A 1 + 2 Approach. Available at: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2012/05/3670/0
67 Confederation of British Industry Scotland, Learning to grow: what employers need from education and skills: education and skills survey 2012. Available at: http://www.cbi.org.uk/media/1514978/cbi_education_and_skills_survey_2012.pdf (Submitted to the European and External Relations Committee as written evidence).
68 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, transcript of plenary sessions, Col 26.
69 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 21 March 2013, Col 1048.
70 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 21 March 2013, Cols 1055-1057.
71 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 21 March 2013, Cols 1055-1057.
72 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 18 April 2013, Col 1125.
73 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 7 February 2013, Col 912.
74 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, break out group 3 report, see Annexe E.
75 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, break out group 3 report, see Annexe E.
76 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 18 April 2013, Col 1124.
77 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 7 March 2013, Col 1026.
78 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 18 April 2013, Col 1127.
79 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 18 April 2013, Col 1127.
80 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, transcript of plenary sessions, Col 21.
81 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, report of visit to Donibristle primary school, see Annexe D.
82 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, transcript of plenary sessions, Col 22.
83 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 7 March 2013, Col 1005. Written evidence. National Association of Schoolmasters Union of Women Teachers.
84 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, break out group 3 report, see Annexe E.
85 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, transcript of plenary sessions, Cols 18-19.
86 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, transcript of plenary sessions, Cols 18-19.
87 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 24 January 2013, Col 884.
88 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 21 February 2013, Col 952.
89 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 21 February 2013, Col 953.
90 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, break out group 4 report, see Annexe E
91 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 21 February 2013, Col 962.
92 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 7 March 2013, Cols 1006-7.
93 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 7 March 2013, Col 997.
94 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 24 January 2013, Cols 866-867. Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, break out group 4 report, see Annexe E
95 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 24 January 2013, Col 875.
96 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 24 January 2013, Col 873.
98 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, break out group 2 report, see Annexe E.
99 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 24 January 2013, Col 871.
100 Written evidence. British Council Scotland.
101 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 24 January 2013, Col 871-879. Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 21 February 2013, Col 964.
102 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 7 March 2013, Col 1000.
103 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 7 March 2013, Col 997. Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, reports of visits to Darvel and Kilmaurs primary school, see Annexe D.
104 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 7 March 2013, Col 997.
105 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 21 February 2013, Col 970.
106 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 21 March 2013, Cols 1064 and 1066.
107 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 18 April 2013, Col 1120.
108 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 21 February 2013, Cols 960-961, and 971-973.
109 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 21 February 2013, Cols 966 and 975.
110 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, break out group 4 report, see Annexe E.
111 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 18 April 2013, Col 1101.
112 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, break out group 2 report, see Annexe E.
113 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 18 April 2013, Col 1120.
114 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 24 January 2013, Col 882.
115 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 21 February 2013, Cols 966 - 967.
116 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, report of visit to Donibristle primary school, see Annexe D.
117 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, transcript of plenary sessions, Cols 31-32. Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, break out group 4 report, see Annexe E.
118 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee, 10 May 2013 conference, transcript of plenary sessions, Cols 31-32.
119 Scottish Parliament European and External Relations Committee. Official Report, 18 April 2013, Col 1121.
120 Modern Languages Excellence Report, Scottish CILT, 2011
121 Trends in Policies and Practices for Multilingualism in Europe, Language Rich Europe, 2012
122 Modern Languages Excellence Report, Scottish CILT, 2011
123 Trends in Policies and Practices for Multilingualism in Europe, Language Rich Europe, 2012
124 Modern Languages Excellence Report, Scottish CILT, 2011
125 Modern Languages Excellence Report, Scottish CILT, 2011
127 Trends in Policies and Practices for Multilingualism in Europe, Language Rich Europe, 2012
128 For the full version of the report, see http://www.scotlandgoesglobal.co.uk/research-videos/
129 Ready to Grow: Business Priorities for Education and Skills – Education Skills Survey 2010 (CBI, 2010) p. 23.
130 The Economic Case for Language Learning and the Role of Employer Engagement (Education and Employers Taskforce, 2011), p. 5.
132 See http://www.strath.ac.uk/media/faculties/hass/scilt/statistics/ML_in_S4-S6_Overview.pdf
133 Erasmus – Facts, Figures & Trends: the European Union support for student and staff exchanges and university cooperation in 2009/2010 (European Union, 2011), p. 25.
134 The biggest number of outgoing students originated from Spain (27,448) followed by France (24,426) and Germany (24,029). The annual growth rate was highest in Cyprus (38.2%), followed by Estonia (31.6%) and Turkey (15.8%). The annual growth rate of outgoing students was above 10% in nine countries: Bulgaria, Cyprus, Estonia, Spain, Ireland, Latvia, Sweden, Iceland and Turkey. See Lifelong Learning Programme: The Erasmus Programme 2009/10 - A Statistical Overview (European Commission, 2011), p. 12.
135 For more on study abroad and its link to graduate employability, see Developing Scotland’s Graduates for the Global Economy: From Here to Where (NUS Scotland, 2012).
136 Next Generation UK: Research with UK Undergraduates Aged 19-21 (British Council/YouGov 2011), p. 52.
137 Ready to Grow: Business Priorities for Education and Skills (CBI, 2010), p. 23.
138 The Global Skills Gap: Preparing Young People for the New Global Economy (British Council/Think Global, 2011), p. 4.
139 The Mismanagement of Talent: Employability and Jobs in the Knowledge Economy (OUP, 2004), p. 220.
140 Cited from a forthcoming FSB report into exporting.
141 See: “Raising the Standards: An FSB Skills Survey”, Federation of Small Businesses, 2011.
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